With big laws like OR and ZGB this can take up to 30 seconds

Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation

English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force.

The Swiss People and the Cantons,

mindful of their responsibility towards creation,

resolved to renew their alliance so as to strengthen liberty, democracy, independence and peace in a spirit of solidarity and openness towards the world,

determined to live together with mutual consideration and respect for their diversity,

conscious of their common achievements and their responsibility towards future generations,

and in the knowledge that only those who use their freedom remain free, and that the strength of a people is measured by the well-being of its weakest members,

adopt the following Constitution1:

Title 1 General Provisions

Art. 1 The Swiss Confederation

The People and the Can­tons of Zurich, Bern, Lu­cerne, Uri, Schwyz, Ob­walden and Nid­walden, Glarus, Zug, Fri­bourg, So­lo­thurn, Basel Stadt and Basel Land­schaft, Schaff­hausen, Ap­pen­zell Aus­ser­rhoden and Ap­pen­zell In­nerr­hoden, St. Gal­len, Graubünden, Aar­gau, Thur­gau, Ti­cino, Vaud, Val­ais, Neuchâtel, Geneva, and Jura form the Swiss Con­fed­er­a­tion.

Art. 2 Aims

1The Swiss Con­fed­er­a­tion shall pro­tect the liberty and rights of the people and safe­guard the in­de­pend­ence and se­cur­ity of the coun­try.

2It shall pro­mote the com­mon wel­fare, sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment, in­tern­al co­he­sion and cul­tur­al di­versity of the coun­try.

3It shall en­sure the greatest pos­sible equal­ity of op­por­tun­ity among its cit­izens.

4It is com­mit­ted to the long term pre­ser­va­tion of nat­ur­al re­sources and to a just and peace­ful in­ter­na­tion­al or­der.

Art. 3 Cantons

The Can­tons are sov­er­eign ex­cept to the ex­tent that their sov­er­eignty is lim­ited by the Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion. They ex­er­cise all rights that are not ves­ted in the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

Art. 4 National languages

The Na­tion­al Lan­guages are Ger­man, French, Itali­an, and Ro­man­sh.

Art. 5 Rule of law

1All activ­it­ies of the state are based on and lim­ited by law.

2State activ­it­ies must be con­duc­ted in the pub­lic in­terest and be pro­por­tion­ate to the ends sought.

3State in­sti­tu­tions and private per­sons shall act in good faith.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall re­spect in­ter­na­tion­al law.

Art. 5a Subsidiarity

The prin­ciple of sub­si­di­ar­ity must be ob­served in the al­loc­a­tion and per­form­ance of state tasks.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 6 Individual and collective responsibility

All in­di­vidu­als shall take re­spons­ib­il­ity for them­selves and shall, ac­cord­ing to their abil­it­ies, con­trib­ute to achiev­ing the tasks of the state and so­ci­ety.

Title 2 Fundamental Rights, Citizenship and Social Goals

Chapter 1 Fundamental Rights

Art. 7 Human dignity

Hu­man dig­nity must be re­spec­ted and pro­tec­ted.

Art. 8 Equality before the law

1Every per­son is equal be­fore the law.

2No per­son may be dis­crim­in­ated against, in par­tic­u­lar on grounds of ori­gin, race, gender, age, lan­guage, so­cial po­s­i­tion, way of life, re­li­gious, ideo­lo­gic­al, or polit­ic­al con­vic­tions, or be­cause of a phys­ic­al, men­tal or psy­cho­lo­gic­al dis­ab­il­ity.

3Men and wo­men have equal rights. The law shall en­sure their equal­ity, both in law and in prac­tice, most par­tic­u­larly in the fam­ily, in edu­ca­tion, and in the work­place. Men and wo­men have the right to equal pay for work of equal value.

4The law shall provide for the elim­in­a­tion of in­equal­it­ies that af­fect per­sons with dis­ab­il­it­ies.

Art. 9 Protection against arbitrary conduct and principle of good faith

Every per­son has the right to be treated by state au­thor­it­ies in good faith and in a non-ar­bit­rary man­ner.

Art. 10 Right to life and to personal freedom

1Every per­son has the right to life. The death pen­alty is pro­hib­ited.

2Every per­son has the right to per­son­al liberty and in par­tic­u­lar to phys­ic­al and men­tal in­teg­rity and to free­dom of move­ment.

3Tor­ture and any oth­er form of cruel, in­hu­man or de­grad­ing treat­ment or pun­ish­ment are pro­hib­ited.

Art. 11 Protection of children and young people

1Chil­dren and young people have the right to the spe­cial pro­tec­tion of their in­teg­rity and to the en­cour­age­ment of their de­vel­op­ment.

2They may per­son­ally ex­er­cise their rights to the ex­tent that their power of judge­ment al­lows.

Art. 12 Right to assistance when in need

Per­sons in need and un­able to provide for them­selves have the right to as­sist­ance and care, and to the fin­an­cial means re­quired for a de­cent stand­ard of liv­ing.

Art. 13 Right to privacy

1Every per­son has the right to pri­vacy in their private and fam­ily life and in their home, and in re­la­tion to their mail and tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions.

2Every per­son has the right to be pro­tec­ted against the mis­use of their per­son­al data.

Art. 14 Right to marry and to have a family

The right to marry and to have a fam­ily is guar­an­teed.

Art. 15 Freedom of religion and conscience

1Free­dom of re­li­gion and con­science is guar­an­teed.

2Every per­son has the right to choose freely their re­li­gion or their philo­soph­ic­al con­vic­tions, and to pro­fess them alone or in com­munity with oth­ers.

3Every per­son has the right to join or to be­long to a re­li­gious com­munity, and to fol­low re­li­gious teach­ings.

4No per­son may be forced to join or be­long to a re­li­gious com­munity, to par­ti­cip­ate in a re­li­gious act, or to fol­low re­li­gious teach­ings.

Art. 16 Freedom of expression and of information

1Free­dom of ex­pres­sion and of in­form­a­tion is guar­an­teed.

2Every per­son has the right freely to form, ex­press, and im­part their opin­ions.

3Every per­son has the right freely to re­ceive in­form­a­tion to gath­er it from gen­er­ally ac­cess­ible sources and to dis­sem­in­ate it.

Art. 17 Freedom of the media

1Free­dom of the press, ra­dio and tele­vi­sion and of oth­er forms of dis­sem­in­a­tion of fea­tures and in­form­a­tion by means of pub­lic tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions is guar­an­teed.

2Cen­sor­ship is pro­hib­ited.

3The pro­tec­tion of sources is guar­an­teed.

Art. 18 Freedom to use any language

The free­dom to use any lan­guage is guar­an­teed.

Art. 19 Right to basic education

The right to an ad­equate and free ba­sic edu­ca­tion is guar­an­teed

Art. 20 Academic freedom

Free­dom of re­search and teach­ing is guar­an­teed.

Art. 21 Freedom of artistic expression

Free­dom of artist­ic ex­pres­sion is guar­an­teed.

Art. 22 Freedom of assembly

1Free­dom of as­sembly is guar­an­teed.

2Every per­son has the right to or­gan­ise meet­ings and to par­ti­cip­ate or not to par­ti­cip­ate in meet­ings.

Art. 23 Freedom of association

1Free­dom of as­so­ci­ation is guar­an­teed.

2Every per­son has the right to form, join or be­long to an as­so­ci­ation and to par­ti­cip­ate in the activ­it­ies of an as­so­ci­ation.

3No per­son may be com­pelled to join or to be­long to an as­so­ci­ation.

Art. 24 Freedom of domicile

1Swiss cit­izens have the right to es­tab­lish their dom­i­cile any­where in the coun­try.

2They have the right to leave or to enter Switzer­land.

Art. 25 Protection against expulsion, extradition and deportation

1Swiss cit­izens may not be ex­pelled from Switzer­land and may only be ex­tra­dited to a for­eign au­thor­ity with their con­sent.

2Refugees may not be de­por­ted or ex­tra­dited to a state in which they will be per­se­cuted.

3No per­son may be de­por­ted to a state in which they face the threat of tor­ture or any oth­er form of cruel or in­hu­mane treat­ment or pun­ish­ment.

Art. 26 Guarantee of ownership

1The right to own prop­erty is guar­an­teed.

2The com­puls­ory pur­chase of prop­erty and any re­stric­tion on own­er­ship that is equi­val­ent to com­puls­ory pur­chase shall be com­pensated in full.

Art. 27 Economic freedom

1Eco­nom­ic free­dom is guar­an­teed.

2Eco­nom­ic free­dom in­cludes in par­tic­u­lar the free­dom to choose an oc­cu­pa­tion as well as the free­dom to pur­sue a private eco­nom­ic activ­ity.

Art. 28 Right to form professional associations

1Em­ploy­ees, em­ploy­ers and their or­gan­isa­tions have the right to join to­geth­er in or­der to pro­tect their in­terests, to form as­so­ci­ations and to join or not to join such as­so­ci­ations.

2Dis­putes must wherever pos­sible be re­solved through ne­go­ti­ation or me­di­ation.

3Strikes and lock outs are per­mit­ted if they re­late to em­ploy­ment re­la­tions and if they do not con­tra­vene any re­quire­ments to pre­serve peace­ful em­ploy­ment re­la­tions or to con­duct con­cili­ation pro­ceed­ings.

4The law may pro­hib­it cer­tain cat­egor­ies of per­son from tak­ing strike ac­tion.

Art. 29 General procedural guarantees

1Every per­son has the right to equal and fair treat­ment in ju­di­cial and ad­min­is­trat­ive pro­ceed­ings and to have their case de­cided with­in a reas­on­able time.

2Each party to a case has the right to be heard.

3Any per­son who does not have suf­fi­cient means has the right to free leg­al ad­vice and as­sist­ance un­less their case ap­pears to have no pro­spect of suc­cess. If it is ne­ces­sary in or­der to safe­guard their rights, they also have the right to free leg­al rep­res­ent­a­tion in court.

Art. 29a Guarantee of access to the courts

In a leg­al dis­pute, every per­son has the right to have their case de­term­ined by a ju­di­cial au­thor­ity. The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons may by law pre­clude the de­term­in­a­tion by the courts of cer­tain ex­cep­tion­al cat­egor­ies of case.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 March 2000, in force since 1 Jan. 2007 (FedD of 8 Oct. 1999, FCD of 17 May 2000, FedD of 8 March 2005; AS 2002 3148, 2006 1059; BBl 1997 I 1, 1999 8633, 2000 2990, 20014202).

Art. 30 Judicial proceedings

1Any per­son whose case falls to be ju­di­cially de­cided has the right to have their case heard by a leg­ally con­sti­tuted, com­pet­ent, in­de­pend­ent and im­par­tial court. Ad hoc courts are pro­hib­ited.

2Un­less oth­er­wise provided by law, any per­son against whom civil pro­ceed­ings have been raised has the right to have their case de­cided by a court with­in the jur­is­dic­tion in which they reside.

3Un­less the law provides oth­er­wise, court hear­ings and the de­liv­ery of judg­ments shall be in pub­lic.

Art. 31 Deprivation of liberty

1No per­son may be de­prived of their liberty oth­er than in the cir­cum­stances and in the man­ner provided for by the law.

2Any per­son de­prived of their liberty has the right to be no­ti­fied without delay and in a lan­guage they can un­der­stand of the reas­ons for their de­ten­tion and of their rights. They must be giv­en the op­por­tun­ity to ex­er­cise their rights, in par­tic­u­lar, the right to have their next-of-kin in­formed.

3Any per­son in pre-tri­al de­ten­tion has the right to be brought be­fore a court without delay. The court de­cides wheth­er the per­son must re­main in de­ten­tion or be re­leased. Any per­son in pre-tri­al de­ten­tion has the right to have their case de­cided with­in a reas­on­able time.

4Any per­son who has been de­prived of their liberty by a body oth­er than a court has the right to have re­course to a court at any time. The court shall de­cide as quickly as pos­sible on the leg­al­ity of their de­ten­tion.

Art. 32 Criminal proceedings

1Every per­son is pre­sumed in­no­cent un­til they have been found guilty by a leg­ally en­force­able judg­ment.

2Every ac­cused per­son has the right to be no­ti­fied as quickly and com­pre­hens­ively as pos­sible of the charge brought against them. They must be giv­en the op­por­tun­ity to as­sert their rights to a prop­er de­fence.

3Every con­victed per­son has the right to have their con­vic­tion re­viewed by a high­er court, with the ex­cep­tion of cases in which the Fed­er­al Su­preme Court sits at first in­stance.

Art. 33 Right of petition

1Every per­son has the right, without pre­ju­dice, to pe­ti­tion the au­thor­it­ies.

2The au­thor­it­ies must ac­know­ledge re­ceipt of such pe­ti­tions.

Art. 34 Political rights

1Polit­ic­al rights are guar­an­teed.

2The guar­an­tee of polit­ic­al rights pro­tects the free­dom of the cit­izen to form an opin­ion and to give genu­ine ex­pres­sion to his or her will.

Art. 35 Upholding of fundamental rights

1Fun­da­ment­al rights must be up­held throughout the leg­al sys­tem.

2Who­ever acts on be­half of the state is bound by fun­da­ment­al rights and is un­der a duty to con­trib­ute to their im­ple­ment­a­tion.

3The au­thor­it­ies shall en­sure that fun­da­ment­al rights, where ap­pro­pri­ate, ap­ply to re­la­tion­ships among private per­sons.

Art. 36 Restrictions on fundamental rights

1Re­stric­tions on fun­da­ment­al rights must have a leg­al basis. Sig­ni­fic­ant re­stric­tions must have their basis in a fed­er­al act. The fore­go­ing does not ap­ply in cases of ser­i­ous and im­me­di­ate danger where no oth­er course of ac­tion is pos­sible.

2Re­stric­tions on fun­da­ment­al rights must be jus­ti­fied in the pub­lic in­terest or for the pro­tec­tion of the fun­da­ment­al rights of oth­ers.

3Any re­stric­tions on fun­da­ment­al rights must be pro­por­tion­ate.

4The es­sence of fun­da­ment­al rights is sac­rosanct.

Chapter 2 Citizenship and Political Rights

Art. 37 Citizenship

1Any per­son who is a cit­izen of a com­mune and of the Can­ton to which that com­mune be­longs is a Swiss cit­izen.

2No per­son may be giv­en pref­er­en­tial treat­ment or suf­fer pre­ju­dice be­cause of their cit­izen­ship. The fore­go­ing does not ap­ply to reg­u­la­tions on polit­ic­al rights in cit­izens' com­munes and cor­por­a­tions or to par­ti­cip­a­tion in the as­sets there­of, un­less can­ton­al le­gis­la­tion provides oth­er­wise.

Art. 38 Acquisition and deprivation of citizenship

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall reg­u­late the ac­quis­i­tion and depriva­tion of cit­izen­ship by birth, mar­riage or ad­op­tion. It shall also reg­u­late the depriva­tion of Swiss cit­izen­ship on oth­er grounds, to­geth­er with the re­in­state­ment of cit­izen­ship.

2It shall le­gis­late on the min­im­um re­quire­ments for the nat­ur­al­isa­tion of for­eign na­tion­als by the Can­tons and grant nat­ur­al­isa­tion per­mits.

3It shall en­act sim­pli­fied reg­u­la­tions on the nat­ur­al­isa­tion of:

a.
third gen­er­a­tion im­mig­rants;
b.
state­less chil­dren.1

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 12 Feb. 2017 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 13 April 2017 - AS 2017 2643; BBl 2015 769 1327, 2017 3387).

Art. 39 Exercise of political rights

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall reg­u­late the ex­er­cise of polit­ic­al rights in fed­er­al mat­ters, and the Can­tons shall reg­u­late their ex­er­cise at can­ton­al and com­mun­al mat­ters.

2Polit­ic­al rights are ex­er­cised in the com­mune in which a cit­izen resides, al­though the Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons may provide for ex­cep­tions.

3No per­son may ex­er­cise their polit­ic­al rights con­tem­por­an­eously in more than one Can­ton.

4A Can­ton may provide that a per­son newly re­gistered as a res­id­ent may ex­er­cise the right to vote in can­ton­al and com­mun­al mat­ters only after a wait­ing peri­od of a max­im­um of three months of per­man­ent set­tle­ment.

Art. 40 The Swiss abroad

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­cour­age re­la­tions among the Swiss abroad and their re­la­tions with Switzer­land. It may sup­port or­gan­isa­tions that pur­sue this ob­ject­ive.

2It shall le­gis­late on the rights and ob­lig­a­tions of the Swiss abroad, in par­tic­u­lar in re­la­tion to the ex­er­cise of polit­ic­al rights in the Con­fed­er­a­tion, the ful­fil­ment of the ob­lig­a­tion to per­form mil­it­ary or al­tern­at­ive ser­vice, wel­fare sup­port and so­cial se­cur­ity.

Chapter 3 Social Objectives

Art. 41

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall, as a com­ple­ment to per­son­al re­spons­ib­il­ity and private ini­ti­at­ive, en­deav­our to en­sure that:

a.
every per­son has ac­cess to so­cial se­cur­ity;
b.
every per­son has ac­cess to the health care that they re­quire;
c.
fam­il­ies are pro­tec­ted and en­cour­aged as com­munit­ies of adults and chil­dren;
d.
every per­son who is fit to work can earn their liv­ing by work­ing un­der fair con­di­tions;
e.
any per­son seek­ing ac­com­mod­a­tion for them­selves and their fam­ily can find suit­able ac­com­mod­a­tion on reas­on­able terms;
f.
chil­dren and young people as well as per­sons of em­ploy­able age can ob­tain an edu­ca­tion and un­der­go ba­sic and ad­vanced train­ing in ac­cord­ance with their abil­it­ies;
g.
chil­dren and young people are en­cour­aged to de­vel­op in­to in­de­pend­ent and so­cially re­spons­ible people and are sup­por­ted in their so­cial, cul­tur­al and polit­ic­al in­teg­ra­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall en­deav­our to en­sure that every per­son is pro­tec­ted against the eco­nom­ic con­sequences of old-age, in­valid­ity, ill­ness, ac­ci­dent, un­em­ploy­ment, ma­ter­nity, be­ing orphaned and be­ing wid­owed.

3They shall en­deav­our to achieve these so­cial ob­ject­ives with­in the scope of their con­sti­tu­tion­al powers and the re­sources avail­able to them.

4No dir­ect right to state be­ne­fits may be es­tab­lished on the basis of these so­cial ob­ject­ives.

Title 3 Confederation, Cantons and Communes

Chapter 1 Relations between the Confederation and the Cantons

Section 1 Duties of the Confederation and the Cantons

Art. 42 Duties of the Confederation

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall ful­fil the du­ties that are as­signed to it by Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion.

21


1 Re­pealed by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2008 (FedD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 43 Duties of the Cantons

The Can­tons de­cide on the du­ties that they must ful­fil with­in the scope of their powers.

Art. 43a Principles for the allocation and fulfilment of state tasks

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion only un­der­takes tasks that the Can­tons are un­able to per­form or which re­quire uni­form reg­u­la­tion by the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

2The col­lect­ive body that be­ne­fits from a pub­lic ser­vice bears the costs there­of.

3The col­lect­ive body that bears the costs of a pub­lic ser­vice may de­cide on the nature of that ser­vice.

4Uni­ver­sally provided ser­vices must made be avail­able to every per­son in a com­par­able man­ner.

5State tasks must be ful­filled eco­nom­ic­ally and in ac­cord­ance with de­mand.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Section 2 Cooperation between the Confederation and the Cantons

Art. 44 Principles

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall sup­port each oth­er in the ful­fil­ment of their du­ties and shall gen­er­ally co­oper­ate with each oth­er.

2They owe each oth­er a duty of con­sid­er­a­tion and sup­port. They shall provide each oth­er with ad­min­is­trat­ive as­sist­ance and mu­tu­al ju­di­cial as­sist­ance.

3Dis­putes between Can­tons or between Can­tons and the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall wherever pos­sible be re­solved by ne­go­ti­ation or me­di­ation.

Art. 45 Participation in federal decision-making

1In the cases spe­cified by the Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion, the Can­tons shall par­ti­cip­ate in the fed­er­al de­cision mak­ing pro­cess, and in par­tic­u­lar in the le­gis­lat­ive pro­cess.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall in­form the Can­tons of its in­ten­tions fully and in good time. It shall con­sult the Can­tons where their in­terests are af­fected.

Art. 46 Implementation of federal law

1The Can­tons shall im­ple­ment fed­er­al law in ac­cord­ance with the Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion and fed­er­al le­gis­la­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons may to­geth­er agree that the Can­tons should achieve spe­cif­ic goals in the im­ple­ment­a­tion of fed­er­al law and may to this end con­duct pro­grammes that re­ceive fin­an­cial sup­port from the Con­fed­er­a­tion.1

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall al­low the Can­tons all pos­sible dis­cre­tion to or­gan­ise their own af­fairs and shall take ac­count of can­ton­al par­tic­u­lar­it­ies.2


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 47 Autonomy of the Cantons

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall re­spect the autonomy of the Can­tons.

2It shall leave the Can­tons suf­fi­cient tasks of their own and re­spect their or­gan­isa­tion­al autonomy. It shall leave the Can­tons with suf­fi­cient sources of fin­ance and con­trib­ute to­wards en­sur­ing that they have the fin­an­cial re­sources re­quired to ful­fil their tasks.1


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 48 Intercantonal agreements

1The Can­tons may enter in­to agree­ments with each oth­er and es­tab­lish com­mon or­gan­isa­tions and in­sti­tu­tions. In par­tic­u­lar, they may jointly un­der­take tasks of re­gion­al im­port­ance to­geth­er.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion may par­ti­cip­ate in such or­gan­isa­tions or in­sti­tu­tions with­in the scope of its powers.

3Agree­ments between Can­tons must not be con­trary to the law, to the in­terests of the Con­fed­er­a­tion or to the rights of oth­er Can­tons. The Con­fed­er­a­tion must be no­ti­fied of such agree­ments.

4The Can­tons may by in­ter­can­t­on­al agree­ment au­thor­ise in­ter­can­t­on­al bod­ies to is­sue le­gis­lat­ive pro­vi­sions that im­ple­ment an in­ter­can­t­on­al agree­ment, provided the agree­ment:

a.
has been ap­proved un­der the same pro­ced­ure that ap­plies to oth­er le­gis­la­tion;
b.
de­term­ines the ba­sic con­tent of the pro­vi­sions.1

5The Can­tons shall com­ply with in­ter­can­t­on­al law.2


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 48a Declaration of general application and requirement of participation

1At the re­quest of in­ter­ested Can­tons, the Con­fed­er­a­tion may de­clare in­ter­can­t­on­al agree­ments to be gen­er­ally bind­ing or re­quire Can­tons to par­ti­cip­ate in in­ter­can­t­on­al agree­ments in the fol­low­ing fields:

a.
the ex­e­cu­tion of crim­in­al pen­al­ties and meas­ures;
b.2
school edu­ca­tion in the mat­ters spe­cified in Art­icle 62 para­graph 4;
c.3
can­ton­al in­sti­tu­tions of high­er edu­ca­tion;
d.
cul­tur­al in­sti­tu­tions of supra-re­gion­al im­port­ance;
e.
waste man­age­ment;
f.
waste wa­ter treat­ment;
g.
urb­an trans­port;
h.
ad­vanced med­ic­al sci­ence and spe­cial­ist clin­ics;
i.
in­sti­tu­tions for the re­hab­il­it­a­tion and care of in­val­ids.

2A de­clar­a­tion of gen­er­al ap­plic­a­tion is made in the form of a fed­er­al de­cree.

3The law shall spe­cify the re­quire­ments for a de­clar­a­tion of gen­er­al ap­plic­a­tion and for a par­ti­cip­a­tion re­quire­ment and reg­u­late the pro­ced­ure.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
3 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 49 Precedence of and compliance with federal law

1Fed­er­al law takes pre­ced­ence over any con­flict­ing pro­vi­sion of can­ton­al law.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that the Can­tons com­ply with fed­er­al law.

Section 3 Communes

Art. 50

1The autonomy of the com­munes is guar­an­teed in ac­cord­ance with can­ton­al law.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count in its activ­it­ies of the pos­sible con­sequences for the com­munes.

3In do­ing so, it shall take ac­count of the spe­cial po­s­i­tion of the cit­ies and urb­an areas as well as the moun­tain re­gions.

Section 4 Federal Guarantees

Art. 51 Cantonal constitutions

1Each Can­ton shall ad­opt a demo­crat­ic con­sti­tu­tion. This re­quires the ap­prov­al of the People and must be cap­able of be­ing re­vised if the ma­jor­ity of those eli­gible to vote so re­quest.

2Each can­ton­al con­sti­tu­tion shall re­quire the guar­an­tee of the Con­fed­er­a­tion. The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall guar­an­tee a con­sti­tu­tion provided it is not con­trary to fed­er­al law.

Art. 52 Constitutional order

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall pro­tect the con­sti­tu­tion­al or­der of the Can­tons.

2It shall in­ter­vene when pub­lic or­der in a Can­ton is dis­rup­ted or un­der threat and the Can­ton in ques­tion is not able to main­tain or­der alone or with the aid of oth­er Can­tons.

Art. 53 Number and territory of the Cantons

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall pro­tect the ex­ist­ence and ter­rit­ory of the Can­tons.

2Any change in the num­ber of Can­tons re­quires the con­sent of the cit­izens and the Can­tons con­cerned to­geth­er with the con­sent of the People and the Can­tons.

3Any change in ter­rit­ory between Can­tons re­quires the con­sent both of the Can­tons con­cerned and of their cit­izens as well as the ap­prov­al of the Fed­er­al As­sembly in the form of a Fed­er­al De­cree.

4Inter-can­ton­al bound­ary ad­just­ments may be made by agree­ment between the Can­tons con­cerned.

Chapter 2 Powers

Section 1 Relations with Foreign States

Art. 54 Foreign relations

1For­eign re­la­tions are the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that the in­de­pend­ence of Switzer­land and its wel­fare is safe­guarded; it shall in par­tic­u­lar as­sist in the al­le­vi­ation of need and poverty in the world and pro­mote re­spect for hu­man rights and demo­cracy, the peace­ful co-ex­ist­ence of peoples as well as the con­ser­va­tion of nat­ur­al re­sources.

3It shall re­spect the powers of the Can­tons and pro­tect their in­terests.

Art. 55 Participation of the Cantons in foreign policy decisions

1The Can­tons shall be con­sul­ted on for­eign policy de­cisions that af­fect their powers or their es­sen­tial in­terests.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall in­form the Can­tons fully and in good time and shall con­sult with them.

3The views of the Can­tons are of par­tic­u­lar im­port­ance if their powers are af­fected. In such cases, the Can­tons shall par­ti­cip­ate in in­ter­na­tion­al ne­go­ti­ations in an ap­pro­pri­ate man­ner.

Art. 56 Relations between the Cantons and foreign states

1A Can­ton may con­clude treat­ies with for­eign states on mat­ters that lie with­in the scope of its powers.

2Such treat­ies must not con­flict with the law or the in­terests of the Con­fed­er­a­tion, or with the law of any oth­er Can­tons. The Can­ton must in­form the Con­fed­er­a­tion be­fore con­clud­ing such a treaty.

3A Can­ton may deal dir­ectly with lower rank­ing for­eign au­thor­it­ies; in oth­er cases, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall con­duct re­la­tions with for­eign states on be­half of a Can­ton.

Section 2 Security, National Defence, Civil Defence

Art. 57 Security

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall with­in the scope of their powers en­sure the se­cur­ity of the coun­try and the pro­tec­tion of the pop­u­la­tion.

2They shall co­ordin­ate their ef­forts in the area of in­tern­al se­cur­ity.

Art. 58 Armed forces

1Switzer­land shall have armed forces. In prin­ciple, the armed forces shall be or­gan­ised as a mi­li­tia.

2The armed forces serve to pre­vent war and to main­tain peace; they de­fend the coun­try and its pop­u­la­tion. They shall sup­port the ci­vil­ian au­thor­it­ies in safe­guard­ing the coun­try against ser­i­ous threats to in­tern­al se­cur­ity and in deal­ing with ex­cep­tion­al situ­ations. Fur­ther du­ties may be provided for by law.

3The de­ploy­ment of the armed forces is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.1


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 59 Military service and alternative service

1Every Swiss man is re­quired to do mil­it­ary ser­vice. Al­tern­at­ive ci­vil­ian ser­vice shall be provided for by law.

2Mil­it­ary ser­vice is vol­un­tary for Swiss wo­men.

3Any Swiss man who does not do mil­it­ary or al­tern­at­ive ser­vice is li­able to pay a tax. This tax is levied by the Con­fed­er­a­tion and as­sessed and col­lec­ted by the Can­tons.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late for fair com­pens­a­tion for loss of in­come.

5Per­sons who suf­fer dam­age to their health or lose their lives while do­ing mil­it­ary or al­tern­at­ive ci­vil­ian ser­vice are en­titled to ap­pro­pri­ate sup­port from the Con­fed­er­a­tion, wheth­er for them­selves or for their next of kin.

Art. 60 Armed forces organisation, training and equipment

1Armed forces le­gis­la­tion, to­geth­er with the or­gan­isa­tion, train­ing and equip­ment of the armed forces, is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

21

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion may, in re­turn for ap­pro­pri­ate com­pens­a­tion, take over the run­ning of can­ton­al mil­it­ary in­stall­a­tions


1 Re­pealed by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 61 Civil defence

1The le­gis­la­tion on the civil de­fence of per­sons and prop­erty against the ef­fects of armed con­flicts is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the de­ploy­ment of civil de­fence units in the event of dis­asters and emer­gen­cies.

3It may de­clare civil de­fence ser­vice to be com­puls­ory for men. For wo­men, such ser­vice is vol­un­tary.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on fair com­pens­a­tion for loss of in­come.

5Per­sons who suf­fer dam­age to their health or lose their lives while do­ing civil de­fence ser­vice are en­titled to ap­pro­pri­ate sup­port from the Con­fed­er­a­tion, wheth­er for them­selves or for their next of kin.

Section 3 Education, Research and Culture

Art. 61a Swiss Education Area

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall, with­in the scope of their powers, jointly en­sure the high qual­ity and ac­cess­ib­il­ity of the Swiss Edu­ca­tion Area.

2They shall co­ordin­ate their ef­forts and en­sure their co­oper­a­tion through joint ad­min­is­trat­ive bod­ies and oth­er meas­ures.

3They shall en­sure in the ful­fil­ment of their du­ties2 that gen­er­al and vo­ca­tion­al courses of study achieve equal re­cog­ni­tion in so­ci­ety.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
2 Re­vised by the Edit­ing Com­mit­tee of the Fed­er­al As­sembly, Art. 58 para. 1 ParlA (SR171.10).

Art. 62 School education *

1The Can­tons are re­spons­ible for the sys­tem of school edu­ca­tion.

2They shall en­sure the pro­vi­sion of an ad­equate ba­sic edu­ca­tion that is avail­able to all chil­dren. Ba­sic edu­ca­tion is man­dat­ory and is man­aged or su­per­vised by the state. At state schools it is free of charge.2

3The Can­tons shall en­sure that ad­equate spe­cial needs edu­ca­tion is provided to all chil­dren and young people with dis­ab­il­it­ies up to the age of 20.3

4Where har­mon­isa­tion of school edu­ca­tion is not achieved by means of co­ordin­a­tion in the areas of school entry age and com­puls­ory school at­tend­ance, the dur­a­tion and ob­ject­ives of levels of edu­ca­tion, and the trans­ition for one level to an­oth­er, as well as the re­cog­ni­tion of qual­i­fic­a­tions, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue reg­u­la­tions to achieve such har­mon­isa­tion.4

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall reg­u­late the start of the school year.5

6The Can­tons shall par­ti­cip­ate in the draft­ing of fed­er­al le­gis­la­tion on school edu­ca­tion that af­fects can­ton­al re­spons­ib­il­it­ies, and spe­cial ac­count shall be taken of their opin­ions.6


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
3 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
4 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
5 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
6 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 63 Vocational and professional education and training

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue reg­u­la­tions on vo­ca­tion­al and pro­fes­sion­al edu­ca­tion and train­ing.

2It shall en­cour­age the pro­vi­sion of a di­verse and ac­cess­ible range of courses in vo­ca­tion­al and pro­fes­sion­al edu­ca­tion and train­ing.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 63a Higher education institutions

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall man­age the Fed­er­al In­sti­tutes of Tech­no­logy. It may es­tab­lish, take over or man­age ad­di­tion­al uni­versit­ies and oth­er high­er edu­ca­tion in­sti­tu­tions.

2It shall sup­port the can­ton­al uni­versit­ies and may make fin­an­cial con­tri­bu­tions to oth­er high­er edu­ca­tion in­sti­tu­tions that it re­cog­nises.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons are jointly re­spons­ible for the co­ordin­a­tion and guar­an­tee of qual­ity in Swiss high­er edu­ca­tion. In ful­filling this re­spons­ib­il­ity, they shall take ac­count of the autonomy of the uni­versit­ies and the vari­ous bod­ies re­spons­ible for them and en­sure the equal treat­ment of in­sti­tu­tions with the same func­tions.

4In or­der to ful­fil their du­ties, the Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall enter in­to agree­ments and del­eg­ate cer­tain powers to joint ad­min­is­trat­ive au­thor­it­ies. The law shall reg­u­late the powers that may be del­eg­ated, and de­term­ine the prin­ciples gov­ern­ing the or­gan­isa­tion of and pro­ced­ures for co­ordin­a­tion.

5If the Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons fail to reach their com­mon goals by means of co­ordin­a­tion, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue reg­u­la­tions on levels of stud­ies and the trans­ition from one level to an­oth­er, on post­gradu­ate edu­ca­tion and on the re­cog­ni­tion of in­sti­tu­tions and qual­i­fic­a­tions. In ad­di­tion, the Con­fed­er­a­tion may im­pose stand­ard fund­ing prin­ciples for sub­sid­ising of uni­versit­ies, and may make sub­sidies con­tin­gent on uni­versit­ies shar­ing par­tic­u­larly cost-in­tens­ive activ­it­ies.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 64 Research

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall pro­mote sci­entif­ic re­search and in­nov­a­tion.1

2It may make its sup­port con­di­tion­al in par­tic­u­lar on qual­ity as­sur­ance and co­ordin­a­tion be­ing guar­an­teed.2

3It may es­tab­lish, take over or run re­search in­sti­tutes.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 64a Continuing education and training

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall spe­cify prin­ciples gov­ern­ing con­tinu­ing edu­ca­tion and train­ing.

2It may pro­mote con­tinu­ing edu­ca­tion and train­ing.

3The law shall spe­cify the fields of and the cri­ter­ia for such pro­mo­tion.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 65 Statistics

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall com­pile the ne­ces­sary stat­ist­ic­al data on the status and trends in the pop­u­la­tion, the eco­nomy, so­ci­ety, edu­ca­tion, re­search, the land and the en­vir­on­ment in Switzer­land.1

2It may is­sue reg­u­la­tions on the har­mon­isa­tion and main­ten­ance of of­fi­cial re­gisters in or­der to re­duce the cost of com­pil­ing data.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 66 Education grants

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may con­trib­ute to can­ton­al ex­pendit­ure on grants provided to stu­dents at uni­versit­ies and high­er edu­ca­tion in­sti­tu­tions. It may en­cour­age the in­ter­can­t­on­al har­mon­isa­tion of edu­ca­tion grants and lay down prin­ciples for the pay­ment of edu­ca­tion grants.2

2It may also sup­ple­ment can­ton­al meas­ures while pre­serving can­ton­al autonomy in edu­ca­tion mat­ters by tak­ing its own meas­ures to pro­mote edu­ca­tion.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 67 Encouragement of children and young people

1In ful­filling their du­ties, the Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall take ac­count of the spe­cial need of chil­dren and young people to re­ceive en­cour­age­ment and pro­tec­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion may sup­ple­ment can­ton­al meas­ures by sup­port­ing ex­tra-cur­ricular work with chil­dren and young people.2


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 21 May 2006, in force since 21 May 2006 (FedD of 16 Dec. 2005, FCD of 27 Ju­ly 2006; AS 2006 3033; BBl 2005 5479 5547 7273, 2006 6725).

Art. 67a Musical education

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall en­cour­age mu­sic­al edu­ca­tion, in par­tic­u­lar that of chil­dren and young people.

2They shall en­deav­our with­in the scope of their powers to en­sure high-qual­ity mu­sic teach­ing in schools. If the Can­tons are un­able to har­mon­ise the goals of mu­sic teach­ing in schools by means of co­ordin­a­tion, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue the re­quired reg­u­la­tions.

3In con­sulta­tion with the Can­tons, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall set out prin­ciples to help young people to en­gage in mu­sic­al activ­it­ies and to en­cour­age mu­sic­ally gif­ted per­sons.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 23 Sept. 2012, in force since 23 Sept. 2012 (FedD of 15 March 2012, FCD of 29 Jan. 2013; AS 2013 435; BBl 2009 613, 2010 1, 2012 3443 6899, 2013 1135).

Art. 68 Sport

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­cour­age sport, and in par­tic­u­lar edu­ca­tion in sport.

2It shall op­er­ate a sports school.

3It may is­sue reg­u­la­tions on sport for young people and de­clare the teach­ing of sport in schools to be com­puls­ory.

Art. 69 Culture

1Cul­tur­al mat­ters are a can­ton­al re­spons­ib­il­ity.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion may sup­port cul­tur­al activ­it­ies of na­tion­al in­terest as well as art and mu­sic, in par­tic­u­lar in the field of edu­ca­tion.

3In the ful­fil­ment of its du­ties, it shall take ac­count of the cul­tur­al and lin­guist­ic di­versity of the coun­try.

Art. 70 Languages

1The of­fi­cial lan­guages of the Con­fed­er­a­tion are Ger­man, French and Itali­an. Ro­man­sh is also an of­fi­cial lan­guage of the Con­fed­er­a­tion when com­mu­nic­at­ing with per­sons who speak Ro­man­sh.

2The Can­tons shall de­cide on their of­fi­cial lan­guages. In or­der to pre­serve har­mony between lin­guist­ic com­munit­ies, the Can­tons shall re­spect the tra­di­tion­al ter­rit­ori­al dis­tri­bu­tion of lan­guages and take ac­count of in­di­gen­ous lin­guist­ic minor­it­ies.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall en­cour­age un­der­stand­ing and ex­change between the lin­guist­ic com­munit­ies.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall sup­port the pluri­lin­gual Can­tons in the ful­fil­ment of their spe­cial du­ties.

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall sup­port meas­ures by the Can­tons of Graubünden and Ti­cino to pre­serve and pro­mote the Ro­man­sh and the Itali­an lan­guages.

Art. 71 Cinema

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may en­cour­age Swiss film pro­duc­tion and film cul­ture.

2It may is­sue reg­u­la­tions to pro­mote the di­versity and the qual­ity of the cine­ma­to­graph­ic works that are offered.

Art. 72 Church and state

1The reg­u­la­tion of the re­la­tion­ship between the church and the state is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Can­tons.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons may with­in the scope of their powers take meas­ures to pre­serve pub­lic peace between the mem­bers of dif­fer­ent re­li­gious com­munit­ies.

3The con­struc­tion of min­arets is pro­hib­ited.1


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 29 Nov. 2009, in force since 29 Nov. 2009 (FedD of 12 June 2009, FCD of 5 May 2010; AS2010 2161; BBl 2008 6851 7603, 2009 4381, 2010 3437).

Section 4 Environment and Spatial Planning

Art. 73 Sustainable development

The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall en­deav­our to achieve a bal­anced and sus­tain­able re­la­tion­ship between nature and its ca­pa­city to re­new it­self and the de­mands placed on it by the pop­u­la­tion.

Art. 74 Protection of the environment

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the pro­tec­tion of the pop­u­la­tion and its nat­ur­al en­vir­on­ment against dam­age or nuis­ance.

2It shall en­sure that such dam­age or nuis­ance is avoided. The costs of avoid­ing or elim­in­at­ing such dam­age or nuis­ance are borne by those re­spons­ible for caus­ing it.

3The Can­tons are re­spons­ible for the im­ple­ment­a­tion of the rel­ev­ant fed­er­al reg­u­la­tions, ex­cept where the law re­serves this duty for the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

Art. 75 Spatial planning

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall lay down prin­ciples on spa­tial plan­ning. These prin­ciples are bind­ing on the Can­tons and serve to en­sure the ap­pro­pri­ate and eco­nom­ic use of the land and its prop­erly ordered set­tle­ment.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­cour­age and co­ordin­ate the ef­forts of the Can­tons and shall co­oper­ate with them.

3Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall take ac­count of the re­quire­ments of spa­tial plan­ning in ful­filling their du­ties.

Art. 75a National Land Survey

1The Na­tion­al Land Sur­vey is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue reg­u­la­tions on of­fi­cial sur­vey­ing.

3It may is­sue reg­u­la­tions on the har­mon­isa­tion of of­fi­cial in­form­a­tion re­lat­ing to the land.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 75b Second homes*

1No more than 20 per cent of the total stock of res­id­en­tial units and the gross res­id­en­tial floor area in any com­mune may be used as second homes.

2The law shall re­quire com­munes to pub­lish their first home per­cent­age plan and a de­tailed re­port on its im­ple­ment­a­tion every year.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 11 March 2012, in force since 11 March 2012 (FedD of 17 June 2011, FCD of 20 June 2012; AS 2012 3627; BBl 2008 1113 8757, 2011 4825, 2012 6623).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.

Art. 76 Water

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall with­in the scope of its powers en­sure the eco­nom­ic use and the pro­tec­tion of wa­ter re­sources and provide pro­tec­tion against the harm­ful ef­fects of wa­ter.

2It shall lay down prin­ciples on the con­ser­va­tion and ex­ploit­a­tion of wa­ter re­sources, the use of wa­ter for the pro­duc­tion of en­ergy and for cool­ing pur­poses, as well as on oth­er meas­ures af­fect­ing the wa­ter-cycle.

3It shall le­gis­late on wa­ter pro­tec­tion, on en­sur­ing ap­pro­pri­ate re­sid­ual flow, on hy­draul­ic en­gin­eer­ing and the safety of dams, and on meas­ures that in­flu­ence pre­cip­it­a­tion.

4The Can­tons shall man­age their wa­ter re­sources. They may levy charges for the use of wa­ter, sub­ject to the lim­its im­posed by fed­er­al le­gis­la­tion. The Con­fed­er­a­tion has the right to use wa­ter for its trans­port op­er­a­tions sub­ject to pay­ment of a charge and com­pens­a­tion.

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion, in con­sulta­tion with the Can­tons con­cerned, shall de­cide on rights to in­ter­na­tion­al wa­ter re­sources and the charges for them. If Can­tons are un­able to agree on rights to in­ter­can­t­on­al wa­ter re­sources, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall de­cide.

6The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count of the con­cerns of the Can­tons where the wa­ter ori­gin­ates in ful­filling its du­ties.

Art. 77 Forests

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that the forests are able to ful­fil their pro­tect­ive, com­mer­cial and pub­lic amen­ity func­tions.

2It shall lay down prin­ciples on the pro­tec­tion of the forests.

3It shall en­cour­age meas­ures for the con­ser­va­tion of the forests.

Art. 78 Protection of natural and cultural heritage

1The pro­tec­tion of nat­ur­al and cul­tur­al her­it­age is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Can­tons.

2In the ful­fil­ment of its du­ties, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count of con­cerns for the pro­tec­tion of nat­ur­al and cul­tur­al her­it­age. It shall pro­tect the coun­tryside and places of ar­chi­tec­tur­al, his­tor­ic­al, nat­ur­al or cul­tur­al in­terest; it shall pre­serve such places in­tact if re­quired to do so in the pub­lic in­terest.

3It may sup­port ef­forts made for the pro­tec­tion of nat­ur­al and cul­tur­al her­it­age and ac­quire or pre­serve prop­er­ties of na­tion­al im­port­ance by con­tract or through com­puls­ory pur­chase.

4It shall le­gis­late on the pro­tec­tion of an­im­al and plant life and on the pre­ser­va­tion of their nat­ur­al hab­it­ats and their di­versity. It shall pro­tect en­dangered spe­cies from ex­tinc­tion.

5Moors and wet­lands of spe­cial beauty and na­tion­al im­port­ance shall be pre­served. No build­ings may be built on them and no changes may be made to the land, ex­cept for the con­struc­tion of fa­cil­it­ies that serve the pro­tec­tion of the moors or wet­lands or their con­tin­ued use for ag­ri­cul­tur­al pur­poses.

Art. 79 Fishing and hunting

The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall lay down prin­ciples on fish­ing and hunt­ing and in par­tic­u­lar on the pre­ser­va­tion of the di­versity of fish spe­cies, wild mam­mals and birds.

Art. 80 Protection of animals

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the pro­tec­tion of an­im­als.

2It shall in par­tic­u­lar reg­u­late:

a.
the keep­ing and care of an­im­als;
b.
ex­per­i­ments on an­im­als and pro­ced­ures car­ried out on liv­ing an­im­als;
c.
the use of an­im­als;
d.
the im­port of an­im­als and an­im­al products;
e.
the trade in an­im­als and the trans­port of an­im­als;
f.
the killing of an­im­als.

3The en­force­ment of the reg­u­la­tions is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Can­tons, ex­cept where the law re­serves this to the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

Section 5 Public Construction Works and Transport

Art. 81 Public Construction Works

The Con­fed­er­a­tion may in the in­terests of the coun­try as a whole or a large part of it carry out and op­er­ate pub­lic con­struc­tion works, or provide sup­port for such con­struc­tion works.

Art. 81a Public transport

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall en­sure that an ad­equate range of pub­lic trans­port ser­vices is provided on rail, roads, wa­ter and by cable­way in all re­gions of the coun­try. In do­ing so, ap­pro­pri­ate ac­count must be taken of the in­terests of rail freight trans­port.

2The costs of pub­lic trans­port shall be covered to an ap­pro­pri­ate ex­tent by the prices paid by users.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (FedD of 20 June 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014, FCD of 2 June 2014, FCD of 6 June 2014; AS 2015 645; BBl 2010 6637, 2012 1577, 2013 4725 6518, 2014 4113 4117).

Art. 82 Road transport

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on road trans­port.

2It shall ex­er­cise over­sight over roads of na­tion­al im­port­ance; it may de­cide which trans­it roads must re­main open to traffic.

3Pub­lic roads may be used free of charge. The Fed­er­al As­sembly may au­thor­ise ex­cep­tions.

Art. 83 Road infrastructure

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall en­sure that there is ad­equate road in­fra­struc­ture in all re­gions of the coun­try.

2 The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure the con­struc­tion of a net­work of na­tion­al high­ways and guar­an­tee that they re­main useable. It shall con­struct, op­er­ate and main­tain the na­tion­al high­ways. It shall bear the costs there­of. It may as­sign this task wholly or partly to pub­lic or private bod­ies or com­bined pub­lic-private bod­ies.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).

Art. 84 Alpine transit traffic *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall pro­tect the Alpine re­gion from the neg­at­ive ef­fects of trans­it traffic. It shall lim­it the nuis­ance caused by trans­it traffic to a level that is not harm­ful to people, an­im­als and plants or their hab­it­ats.

2Transalpine goods traffic shall be trans­por­ted from bor­der to bor­der by rail. The Fed­er­al Coun­cil shall take the meas­ures re­quired. Ex­cep­tions are per­mit­ted only when there is no al­tern­at­ive. They must be spe­cified in de­tail in a fed­er­al act.

3The ca­pa­city of the trans­it routes in the Alpine re­gion may not be in­creased. This does not ap­ply to by-pass roads that re­duce the level of trans­it traffic in towns and vil­lages.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 85 Heavy vehicle charge *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may levy a ca­pa­city or mileage-re­lated charge on heavy vehicle traffic where such traffic cre­ates pub­lic costs that are not covered by oth­er charges or taxes.

2The net rev­en­ue from the charge shall be used to cov­er the costs in­curred in con­nec­tion with over­land trans­port.2

3The Can­tons are en­titled to a share of the net rev­en­ue. In the as­sess­ment of the shares al­loc­ated, the par­tic­u­lar con­sequences that levy­ing the charge have for moun­tain­ous and re­mote re­gions shall be taken in­to ac­count.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (FedD of 20 June 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014, FCD of 2 June 2014, FCD of 6 June 2014; AS 2015 645; BBl 2010 6637, 2012 1577, 2013 4725 6518, 2014 4113 4117).

Art. 85a Charge for using the national highways

The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall levy a charge for the use of the na­tion­al high­ways by mo­tor vehicles and trail­ers that are not li­able to pay the heavy vehicle charge.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).

Art. 86 Use of charges for tasks and costs in connection with road transport*

1A fund shall be set up to fin­ance the na­tion­al high­ways and con­tri­bu­tions to­wards meas­ures to im­prove the road trans­port in­fra­struc­ture in cit­ies and urb­an areas.

2The fol­low­ing mon­ies shall be al­loc­ated to the fund:

a.
the net pro­ceeds of the na­tion­al high­ways charge in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 85a;
b.
the net pro­ceeds of the spe­cial con­sump­tion tax in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 1 let­ter d;
c.
the net pro­ceeds of the sur­charge in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 2 let­ter a;
d.
the net pro­ceeds of the charge in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 2 let­ter b;
e.
a per­cent­age of the net pro­ceeds from the con­sump­tion tax on all mo­tor fuels, with the ex­cep­tion of avi­ation fuels, in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 1 let­ter e; this shall amount to 9 per cent each of the net pro­ceeds un­der let­ter c and 9 per cent of one half of the net pro­ceeds of the con­sump­tion tax on all mo­tor fuels, with the ex­cep­tion of avi­ation fuels, but no more than 310 mil­lion francs per year; the in­dex­a­tion of this amount shall be reg­u­lated by law;
f.
in gen­er­al, 10 per cent of the net pro­ceeds of con­sump­tion tax on all mo­tor fuels, with the ex­cep­tion of avi­ation fuels, in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 1 let­ter e;
g.3
h.
oth­er mon­ies al­loc­ated by law in con­nec­tion with road trans­port.

3A spe­cial fin­ance pro­gramme shall be ad­min­istered for the fol­low­ing tasks and costs in con­nec­tion with road trans­port:

a.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards meas­ures to pro­mote com­bined trans­port and the trans­port of mo­tor vehicles and drivers;
b.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards the cost of main roads;
c.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards pro­tect­ive struc­tures to pre­vent nat­ur­al dis­asters and meas­ures to pro­tect the en­vir­on­ment and coun­tryside from the ef­fects of road traffic;
d.
gen­er­al con­tri­bu­tions to­wards the costs in­curred by the Can­tons for roads open to mo­tor vehicles;
e.
con­tri­bu­tions to Can­tons without na­tion­al high­ways;
f.
re­search and ad­min­is­tra­tion;
g.4

4The spe­cial fin­ance pro­gramme shall be al­loc­ated one half of the net pro­ceeds of the con­sump­tion tax on all mo­tor fuels, with the ex­cep­tion of avi­ation fuels, in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 1 let­ter e, un­der de­duc­tion of the mon­ies un­der para­graph 2 let­ter e.

5Where the spe­cial fin­ance pro­gramme has a proven need and in or­der to form ap­pro­pri­ate re­serves in the spe­cial fin­ance pro­gramme, pro­ceeds from the con­sump­tion tax in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 131 para­graph 1 let­ter d shall be al­loc­ated to the spe­cial fin­ance pro­gramme in­stead of the fund.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.
3 Comes in­to force on 1 Jan. 2020.
4 Comes in­to force on 1 Jan. 2020.

Art. 87 Railways and other modes of transport *

The le­gis­la­tion on rail trans­port, cable­ways, ship­ping, avi­ation and space travel is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 87a Railway infrastructure*

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall bear the prin­cip­al bur­den of fin­an­cing rail­way in­fra­struc­ture.

2Rail­way in­fra­struc­ture shall be fin­anced from a fund. The fol­low­ing re­sources shall be al­loc­ated to the fund:

a.
a max­im­um of two thirds of the rev­en­ue from the heavy vehicle charge un­der Art­icle 85;
b.
the rev­en­ue from the in­crease in value ad­ded tax un­der Art­icle 130 para­graph 3bis;
c.
2.0 per cent of the re­ceipts from the dir­ect fed­er­al tax­a­tion of private in­di­vidu­als;
d.
2,300 mil­lion francs each year from the gen­er­al fed­er­al budget; the in­dex­a­tion of this amount shall be reg­u­lated by law.

3The Can­tons shall par­ti­cip­ate ap­pro­pri­ately in the fin­an­cing of rail­way in­fra­struc­ture. The de­tails shall be reg­u­lated by law.

4The law may provide for ad­di­tion­al fin­an­cing from third parties.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (FedD of 20 June 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014, FCD of 2 June 2014, FCD of 6 June 2014; AS 2015 645; BBl 2010 6637, 2012 1577, 2013 4725 6518, 2014 4113 4117).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.

Art. 87b Use of charges for tasks and costs in connection with air traffic

One half of the net pro­ceeds of the con­sump­tion tax on avi­ation fuels and the sur­charge on the con­sump­tion tax on avi­ation fuels shall be used for the fol­low­ing tasks and costs in con­nec­tion with air traffic:

a.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards en­vir­on­ment­al pro­tec­tion meas­ures made ne­ces­sary by air traffic;
b.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards se­cur­ity meas­ures to pro­tect against un­law­ful acts against air traffic, and in par­tic­u­lar against ter­ror­ist at­tacks and the hi­jack­ing of air­craft, in­so­far as such meas­ures are not the re­spons­ib­il­ity of na­tion­al au­thor­it­ies;
c.
con­tri­bu­tions to­wards meas­ures to en­sure a high tech­nic­al level of safety in air traffic.

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).

Art. 88 Footpaths, hiking trails and cycle paths

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall lay down prin­ciples with re­gard to the net­work of foot­paths, hik­ing trails and cycle paths.

2It may sup­port and co­ordin­ate can­ton­al meas­ures to con­struct and main­tain such net­works and to provide in­form­a­tion about them. In do­ing so, it shall re­spect the powers of the can­tons.

3It shall take ac­count of these net­works in the ful­fil­ment of its du­ties. It shall re­place paths and trails that it has to close.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 23 Sept. 2018, in force since 23 Sept. 2018 (FedD of 13 March 2018, FCD of 21 Jan. 2019 - AS 2019 525; BBl 2016 1791, 2017 5901, 2018 1859, 2019 1311).

Section 6 Energy and Communications

Art. 89 Energy policy

1With­in the scope of their powers, the Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall en­deav­our to en­sure a suf­fi­cient, di­verse, safe, eco­nom­ic and en­vir­on­ment­ally sus­tain­able en­ergy sup­ply as well as the eco­nom­ic and ef­fi­cient use of en­ergy.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall es­tab­lish prin­ciples on the use of loc­al and re­new­able en­ergy sources and on the eco­nom­ic and ef­fi­cient use of en­ergy.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the use of en­ergy by in­stall­a­tions, vehicles and ap­pli­ances. It shall en­cour­age the de­vel­op­ment of en­ergy tech­no­lo­gies, in par­tic­u­lar in the fields of sav­ing en­ergy and the re­new­able en­ergy sources.

4The Can­tons shall be primar­ily re­spons­ible for meas­ures re­lat­ing to the use of en­ergy in build­ings.

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count in its en­ergy policy of the ef­forts made by the Can­tons, the com­munes and the busi­ness com­munity; it shall take ac­count of the con­di­tions in the in­di­vidu­al re­gions of the coun­try and the lim­it­a­tions of what is eco­nom­ic­ally feas­ible.

Art. 90 Nuclear energy *

The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion in the field of nuc­le­ar en­ergy.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 91 Transport of energy

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the trans­port and the sup­ply of elec­tric­al en­ergy.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion on trans­mis­sion and dis­tri­bu­tion sys­tems for the trans­port of li­quid or gaseous fuels.

Art. 92 Postal and telecommunications services

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for postal and tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions ser­vices.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure the ad­equate, uni­ver­sal and reas­on­ably priced pro­vi­sion of postal and tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions ser­vices in all re­gions of the coun­try. The rates shall be fixed ac­cord­ing to stand­ard prin­ciples.

Art. 93 Radio and television

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion on ra­dio and tele­vi­sion as well as on oth­er forms of pub­lic broad­cast­ing of fea­tures and in­form­a­tion.

2Ra­dio and tele­vi­sion shall con­trib­ute to edu­ca­tion and cul­tur­al de­vel­op­ment, to the free shap­ing of opin­ion and to en­ter­tain­ment. They shall take ac­count of the par­tic­u­lar­it­ies of the coun­try and the needs of the Can­tons. They shall present events ac­cur­ately and al­low a di­versity of opin­ions to be ex­pressed ap­pro­pri­ately.

3The in­de­pend­ence of ra­dio and tele­vi­sion as well as their autonomy in de­cid­ing on pro­gram­ming is guar­an­teed.

4Ac­count must be taken of the role and du­ties of oth­er me­dia, in par­tic­u­lar the press.

5Com­plaints about pro­grammes may be sub­mit­ted to an in­de­pend­ent com­plaints au­thor­ity.

Section 7 The Economy

Art. 94 Principles of the economic system

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall abide by the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom.

2They shall safe­guard the in­terests of the Swiss eco­nomy as a whole and, to­geth­er with the private sec­tor, shall con­trib­ute to the wel­fare and eco­nom­ic se­cur­ity of the pop­u­la­tion.

3They shall en­deav­our with­in the scope of their powers to cre­ate fa­vour­able gen­er­al con­di­tions for the private sec­tor.

4Any di­ver­gence from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom, and in par­tic­u­lar meas­ures de­signed to re­strain com­pet­i­tion, shall be per­mit­ted only if they are provided for in the Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion or based on can­ton­al mono­poly rights.

Art. 95 Professional activities in the private sector *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may le­gis­late on pro­fes­sion­al activ­it­ies in the private sec­tor.

2It shall seek to cre­ate a uni­fied Swiss eco­nom­ic area. It shall guar­an­tee that per­sons with an aca­dem­ic qual­i­fic­a­tion or with a fed­er­al or can­ton­al edu­ca­tion­al qual­i­fic­a­tion or an edu­ca­tion­al qual­i­fic­a­tion re­cog­nised by a Can­ton are able to prac­tise their pro­fes­sion throughout Switzer­land.

3For the pro­tec­tion of the eco­nomy, private prop­erty and share­hold­ers, and to guar­an­tee sus­tain­able cor­por­ate gov­ernance, the law shall reg­u­late Swiss com­pan­ies lim­ited by shares lis­ted on stock ex­changes in Switzer­land or abroad in ac­cord­ance with the fol­low­ing prin­ciples:

a.
the gen­er­al meet­ing votes on an an­nu­al basis on the total amount of all re­mu­ner­a­tion (money and the value of be­ne­fits in kind) giv­en to the board of dir­ect­ors, the ex­ec­ut­ive board and the board of ad­visors. It elects on an an­nu­al basis the pres­id­ent of the board of dir­ect­ors, the in­di­vidu­al mem­bers of the board of dir­ect­ors and the re­mu­ner­a­tion com­mit­tee, and the in­de­pend­ent rep­res­ent­at­ives of vot­ing rights. Pen­sion funds vote in the in­terests of their in­sured mem­bers and dis­close how they have voted. Share­hold­ers may vote re­motely on­line; they may not be rep­res­en­ted by a gov­ern­ing of­ficer of the com­pany or by a cus­todi­an bank;
b.
the gov­ern­ing of­ficers may not be giv­en sev­er­ance or sim­il­ar pay­ments, ad­vance pay­ments, bo­nuses for com­pany pur­chases and sales, ad­di­tion­al con­tracts as con­sult­ants to or em­ploy­ees of oth­er com­pan­ies in the group. The man­age­ment of the com­pany may not be del­eg­ated to a leg­al en­tity;
c.
the art­icles of as­so­ci­ation reg­u­late the amount of cred­its, loans and pen­sions pay­able to gov­ern­ing of­ficers, their profit-shar­ing and equity par­ti­cip­a­tion plans and the num­ber of man­dates they may ac­cept out­side the group, as well as the dur­a­tion of em­ploy­ment con­tracts of mem­bers of the ex­ec­ut­ive board;
d.
per­sons vi­ol­at­ing the pro­vi­sions un­der let­ters a-c are li­able to a cus­todi­al sen­tence not ex­ceed­ing three years and to a mon­et­ary pen­alty not ex­ceed­ing six times their an­nu­al re­mu­ner­a­tion.2

1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 3 March 2013, in force since 3 March 2013 (FCD of 15 Nov. 2012 and 30 April 2013; AS 2013 1303; BBl 2006 8755, 2008 2577, 2009 299, 2012 9219, 2013 3129).

Art. 96 Competition policy

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late against the dam­aging ef­fects in eco­nom­ic or so­cial terms of car­tels and oth­er re­straints on com­pet­i­tion.

2It shall take meas­ures:

a.
to pre­vent ab­uses in price main­ten­ance by dom­in­ant un­der­tak­ings and private and pub­lic law or­gan­isa­tions;
b.
against un­fair com­pet­i­tion.

Art. 97 Consumer protection

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take meas­ures to pro­tect con­sumers.

2It shall le­gis­late on the leg­al rem­ed­ies avail­able to con­sumer or­gan­isa­tions. These or­gan­isa­tions shall have the same rights un­der the fed­er­al le­gis­la­tion on un­fair com­pet­i­tion as pro­fes­sion­al and trade as­so­ci­ations.

3The Can­tons shall provide a con­cili­ation pro­ced­ure or a simple and rap­id court pro­ced­ure for claims of up to a cer­tain sum. The Fed­er­al Coun­cil de­term­ines this sum.

Art. 98 Banks and insurance companies

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the bank­ing and stock ex­change sys­tem; in do­ing so, it shall take ac­count of the spe­cial func­tion and role of the can­ton­al banks.

2It may le­gis­late on fin­an­cial ser­vices in oth­er fields.

3It shall le­gis­late on private in­sur­ance.

Art. 99 Monetary policy

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for money and cur­rency; the Con­fed­er­a­tion has the ex­clus­ive right to is­sue coins and bank­notes.

2The Swiss Na­tion­al Bank, as an in­de­pend­ent cent­ral bank, shall pur­sue a mon­et­ary policy that serves the over­all in­terests of the coun­try; it shall be ad­min­istered with the co­oper­a­tion and un­der the su­per­vi­sion of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

3The Swiss Na­tion­al Bank shall cre­ate suf­fi­cient cur­rency re­serves from its rev­en­ues; part of these re­serves shall be held in gold.

4A min­im­um of two thirds of the net profits made by the Swiss Na­tion­al Bank shall be al­loc­ated to the Can­tons.

Art. 100 Economic policy

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take meas­ures to achieve bal­anced eco­nom­ic de­vel­op­ment, and in par­tic­u­lar to pre­vent and com­bat un­em­ploy­ment and in­fla­tion.

2It shall take ac­count of eco­nom­ic de­vel­op­ment in in­di­vidu­al re­gions of the coun­try. It shall co­oper­ate with the Can­tons and the busi­ness com­munity.

3In the field of money and bank­ing, in for­eign eco­nom­ic af­fairs and in the field of pub­lic fin­ance, the Con­fed­er­a­tion may if ne­ces­sary de­part from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion, the Can­tons and the com­munes shall take ac­count of the eco­nom­ic situ­ation in their rev­en­ue and ex­pendit­ure policies.

5To sta­bil­ise the eco­nom­ic situ­ation, the Con­fed­er­a­tion may tem­por­ar­ily levy sur­charges or grant re­bates on fed­er­al taxes and du­ties. The ac­cu­mu­lated funds must be held in re­serve; fol­low­ing their re­lease, dir­ect taxes shall be in­di­vidu­ally re­fun­ded, and in­dir­ect taxes used to grant re­bates or to cre­ate jobs.

6The Con­fed­er­a­tion may ob­lige busi­nesses to ac­cu­mu­late re­serves for the cre­ation of jobs; it shall for this pur­pose grant tax con­ces­sions and may re­quire the Can­tons to do the same. Fol­low­ing the re­lease of the re­serves, busi­nesses shall be free to de­cide how the funds are ap­plied with­in the scope of the uses per­mit­ted by law.

Art. 101 Foreign economic policy

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall safe­guard the in­terests of the Swiss eco­nomy abroad.

2In spe­cial cases, it may take meas­ures to pro­tect the do­mest­ic eco­nomy. In do­ing so, it may if ne­ces­sary de­part from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom.

Art. 102 National economic supply *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that the coun­try is sup­plied with es­sen­tial goods and ser­vices in the event of the threat of politico-mil­it­ary strife or war, or of severe short­ages that the eco­nomy can­not by it­self coun­ter­act. It shall take pre­cau­tion­ary meas­ures to ad­dress these mat­ters.

2In ex­er­cising its powers un­der this Art­icle, it may if ne­ces­sary de­part from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 103 Structural policy *

The Con­fed­er­a­tion may sup­port re­gions of the coun­try that are un­der eco­nom­ic threat and pro­mote spe­cif­ic eco­nom­ic sec­tors and pro­fes­sions, if reas­on­able self-help meas­ures are in­suf­fi­cient to en­sure their ex­ist­ence. In ex­er­cising its powers un­der this Art­icle, it may if ne­ces­sary de­part from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 104 Agriculture

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that ag­ri­cul­tur­al sec­tor, by means of a sus­tain­able and mar­ket ori­ented pro­duc­tion policy, makes an es­sen­tial con­tri­bu­tion to­wards:

a.
the re­li­able pro­vi­sion of the pop­u­la­tion with food­stuffs;
b.
the con­ser­va­tion of nat­ur­al re­sources and the up­keep of the coun­tryside;
c.
de­cent­ral­ised pop­u­la­tion set­tle­ment of the coun­try.

2In ad­di­tion to the self-help meas­ures that can reas­on­ably be ex­pec­ted in the ag­ri­cul­ture sec­tor and if ne­ces­sary in derog­a­tion from the prin­ciple of eco­nom­ic free­dom, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall sup­port farms that cul­tiv­ate the land.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall or­gan­ise meas­ures in such a man­ner that the ag­ri­cul­tur­al sec­tor ful­fils its multi-func­tion­al du­ties. It has in par­tic­u­lar the fol­low­ing powers and du­ties:

a.
sup­ple­ment­ing rev­en­ues from ag­ri­cul­ture by means of dir­ect sub­sidies in or­der to achieve of fair and ad­equate re­mu­ner­a­tion for the ser­vices provided, sub­ject to proof of com­pli­ance with eco­lo­gic­al re­quire­ments;
b.
en­cour­aging by means of eco­nom­ic­ally ad­vant­age­ous in­cent­ives meth­ods of pro­duc­tion that are spe­cific­ally near-nat­ur­al and re­spect­ful of both the en­vir­on­ment and live­stock;
c.
le­gis­lat­ing on de­clar­a­tions of ori­gin, qual­ity, pro­duc­tion meth­ods and pro­cessing pro­ced­ures for food­stuffs;
d.
pro­tect­ing the en­vir­on­ment against the det­ri­ment­al ef­fects of the ex­cess­ive use of fer­til­isers, chem­ic­als and oth­er aux­il­i­ary agents;
e.
at its dis­cre­tion, en­cour­aging ag­ri­cul­tur­al re­search, coun­selling and edu­ca­tion and sub­sid­ise in­vest­ments;
f.
at its dis­cre­tion, le­gis­lat­ing on the con­sol­id­a­tion of ag­ri­cul­tur­al prop­erty hold­ings.

4For these pur­poses, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall provide both funds ear­marked for the ag­ri­cul­tur­al sec­tor and gen­er­al fed­er­al funds.

Art. 104a Food security

In or­der to guar­an­tee the sup­ply of food to the pop­u­la­tion, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall cre­ate the con­di­tions re­quired for:

a.
safe­guard­ing the basis for ag­ri­cul­tur­al pro­duc­tion, and ag­ri­cul­tur­al land in par­tic­u­lar;
b.
food pro­duc­tion that is ad­ap­ted to loc­al con­di­tions and which uses nat­ur­al re­sources ef­fi­ciently;
c.
an ag­ri­cul­ture and food sec­tor that re­sponds to mar­ket re­quire­ments;
d.
cross-bor­der trade re­la­tions that con­trib­ute to the sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment of the ag­ri­cul­ture and food sec­tor;
e.
us­ing food in a way that con­serves nat­ur­al re­sources.

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 24. Sept. 2017, in force since 24 Sept. 2017 (FedD of 14 March 2017, FCD of 30 Nov. 2017 - AS 2017 6735; BBl 2014 6135, 2015 5753, 2017 2495 7829).

Art. 105 Alcohol

The le­gis­la­tion on the man­u­fac­ture, im­port, rec­ti­fic­a­tion and sale of al­co­hol ob­tained by dis­til­la­tion is the re­spons­ib­il­ity of the Con­fed­er­a­tion. The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall in par­tic­u­lar take ac­count of the harm­ful ef­fects of al­co­hol con­sump­tion.

Art. 106 Gambling

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on gambling; in do­ing so it shall take ac­count of can­ton­al in­terests.

2A li­cence from the Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­quired in or­der to es­tab­lish and op­er­ate a casino. In grant­ing such a li­cence, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count of re­gion­al cir­cum­stances. It shall levy a rev­en­ue-re­lated tax on casi­nos; this tax must not ex­ceed 80 per cent of the gross rev­en­ues from gambling. It shall be used to fund the Old-age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance.

3The can­tons are re­spons­ible for grant­ing li­cences for and su­per­vising the fol­low­ing:

a.
gambling activ­it­ies that are avail­able to an un­lim­ited num­ber of people, are offered at more than one loc­a­tion and which are based on the same ran­dom draw or a sim­il­ar pro­ced­ure; the fore­go­ing does not ap­ply to the jack­pot sys­tems in casi­nos;
b.
bet­ting on sports;
c.
games of skill.

4Para­graphs 2 and 3 also ap­ply to tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions-based gambling.

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall take ac­count of the dangers of gambling. They shall en­sure that ap­pro­pri­ate pro­tec­tion is provided through le­gis­la­tion and su­per­vis­ory meas­ures and in do­ing so shall take ac­count of the dif­fer­ent char­ac­ter­ist­ics of the games and the form and loc­a­tion of the gambling op­por­tun­ity offered.

6The can­tons shall en­sure that the net rev­en­ues from gambling in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 3 let­ters a and b are used in their en­tirety for char­it­able pur­poses, in par­tic­u­lar in the fields of cul­ture, so­cial pro­jects and sport.

7The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall co­ordin­ate their ef­forts to ful­fil their tasks. To this end the law shall es­tab­lish a joint body, one half of whose mem­bers shall be from the fed­er­al im­ple­ment­ing bod­ies and the oth­er half from the can­ton­al im­ple­ment­ing bod­ies.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 11 March 2012, in force since 11 March 2012 (FedD of 29 Sept. 2011, FCD of 20 June 2012; AS 2012 3629; BBl 2009 7019, 2010 7961, 2012 6623).

Art. 107 Weapons and war material

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late against mis­use of weapons and their ac­cessor­ies and am­muni­tion.

2It shall le­gis­late on the man­u­fac­ture, pro­cure­ment and sale of war ma­ter­i­al as well as the im­port, ex­port and trans­it of such ma­ter­i­al.

Section 8 Housing, Employment, Social Security and Health

Art. 108 Construction of housing and home ownership

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­cour­age the con­struc­tion of hous­ing, the ac­quis­i­tion of the own­er­ship of apart­ments and houses for the per­son­al use of private in­di­vidu­als, as well as the activ­it­ies of de­velopers and or­gan­isa­tions in­volved in the con­struc­tion of pub­lic util­ity hous­ing.

2It shall en­cour­age in par­tic­u­lar the ac­quis­i­tion and de­vel­op­ment of land for the con­struc­tion of hous­ing, in­creased ef­fi­ciency in con­struc­tion and the re­duc­tion of con­struc­tion and hous­ing costs.

3It may le­gis­late on the de­vel­op­ment of land for hous­ing con­struc­tion and on in­creas­ing the ef­fi­ciency of con­struc­tion.

4In do­ing so, it shall take par­tic­u­lar ac­count of the in­terests of fam­il­ies, eld­erly per­sons, per­sons on low in­comes and per­sons with dis­ab­il­it­ies.

Art. 109 Landlord and tenant

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late against ab­uses in ten­ancy mat­ters, and in par­tic­u­lar against un­fair rents, as well as on the pro­ced­ure for chal­len­ging un­law­fully ter­min­ated leases and the lim­ited ex­ten­sion of leases.

2It may le­gis­late to de­clare frame­work leases to be gen­er­ally ap­plic­able. Such leases may be de­clared gen­er­ally ap­plic­able only if they take ap­pro­pri­ate ac­count of the jus­ti­fied in­terests of minor­it­ies and re­gion­al par­tic­u­lar­it­ies, and re­spect the prin­ciple of equal­ity be­fore the law.

Art. 110 Employment *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may le­gis­late on:

a.
em­ploy­ee pro­tec­tion;
b.
re­la­tions between em­ploy­er and em­ploy­ee, and in par­tic­u­lar on com­mon reg­u­la­tions on op­er­a­tion­al and pro­fes­sion­al mat­ters;
c.
re­cruit­ment ser­vices;
d.
the de­clar­a­tion of col­lect­ive em­ploy­ment agree­ments to be gen­er­ally ap­plic­able.

2Col­lect­ive em­ploy­ment agree­ments may be de­clared gen­er­ally ap­plic­able only if they take ap­pro­pri­ate ac­count of the jus­ti­fied in­terests of minor­it­ies and re­gion­al par­tic­u­lar­it­ies, and they re­spect the prin­ciple of equal­ity be­fore the law and the right to form pro­fes­sion­al as­so­ci­ations.

3Au­gust 1 is the Na­tion­al Day of the Swiss Con­fed­er­a­tion. In terms of em­ploy­ment law, it is re­garded as equi­val­ent to a Sunday, with equi­val­ent rights to pay.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 111 Old-age, survivors' and invalidity pension provision

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take meas­ures to en­sure ad­equate fin­an­cial pro­vi­sion for the eld­erly, sur­viv­ing spouses and chil­dren, and per­sons with dis­ab­il­it­ies. These shall be based on three pil­lars, namely the Fed­er­al Old-age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance, the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme and private pen­sion schemes.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­sure that the Fed­er­al Old-age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance and the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme are able to ful­fil their pur­pose at all times.

3It may re­quire the Can­tons to ex­empt in­sti­tu­tions of the Fed­er­al Old-age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance and the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme from li­ab­il­ity to pay tax and to grant in­sured per­sons and their em­ploy­ers tax re­lief on con­tri­bu­tions and re­ver­sion­ary rights.

4In co­oper­a­tion with the Can­tons, it shall en­cour­age private pen­sion schemes, in par­tic­u­lar through meas­ures re­lat­ing to tax­a­tion policy and the policy of pro­mot­ing prop­erty own­er­ship.

Art. 112 Old-age, Survivors' and Invalidity Insurance

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the Old-age, Sur­viv­ors and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance.

2In do­ing so, it shall ad­here to the fol­low­ing prin­ciples:

a.
the in­sur­ance is com­puls­ory;
abis.1
it provides cash and non-cash be­ne­fits;
b.
pen­sions must be suf­fi­cient to cov­er ba­sic liv­ing ex­penses ad­equately;
c.
the max­im­um pen­sion must not be more than twice the min­im­um pen­sion;
d.
pen­sions must as a min­im­um be ad­jus­ted in line with price trends.

3The in­sur­ance is fun­ded:

a.
through con­tri­bu­tions from those in­sured, whereby em­ploy­ers must pay one half of the con­tri­bu­tions pay­able by their em­ploy­ees;
b.2
through sub­sidies from the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

4The sub­sidies from the Con­fed­er­a­tion may not ex­ceed one half of the dis­burse­ments made un­der the scheme.3.

5The sub­sidies from the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall in the first place be fun­ded from the net pro­ceeds of the tax on to­bacco, the tax on dis­tilled spir­its and the tax on the rev­en­ues from gam­ing houses.

64


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
3 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
4 Re­pealed by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 112a Supplementary benefits

1Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall pay sup­ple­ment­ary be­ne­fits to people whose ba­sic liv­ing ex­penses are not covered by be­ne­fits un­der the Old-age, Sur­viv­ors and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance.

2The law de­term­ines the ex­tent of the sup­ple­ment­ary be­ne­fits as well as the tasks and re­spons­ib­il­it­ies of the Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct. 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 112b Promoting the rehabilitation of people eligible for invalidity benefits*

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall en­cour­age the re­hab­il­it­a­tion of people eli­gible for in­valid­ity be­ne­fits by provid­ing cash and non-cash be­ne­fits. For this pur­pose, it may use re­sources from the In­valid­ity In­sur­ance.

2The Can­tons shall en­cour­age the re­hab­il­it­a­tion of people eli­gible for in­valid­ity be­ne­fits, in par­tic­u­lar through con­tri­bu­tions to the con­struc­tion and run­ning of in­sti­tu­tions that provide ac­com­mod­a­tion and work.

3The law de­term­ines the goals of re­hab­il­it­a­tion and the prin­ciples and cri­ter­ia.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.

Art. 112c Aid for elderly people and people with disabilities*

1The Can­tons shall provide for as­sist­ance and care in the home for eld­erly people and people with dis­ab­il­it­ies.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall sup­port na­tion­al ef­forts for the be­ne­fit of eld­erly people and people with dis­ab­il­it­ies. For this pur­pose, it may use re­sources from the Old-age, Sur­viv­ors and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.

Art. 113 Occupational pension scheme *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late for an oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme.

2In do­ing so, it shall ad­here to the fol­low­ing prin­ciples:

a.
the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme, to­geth­er with the Old-age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance, en­ables the in­sured per­son to main­tain his or her pre­vi­ous life­style in an ap­pro­pri­ate man­ner.
b.
the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme is com­puls­ory for em­ploy­ees; the law may provide for ex­cep­tions.
c.
em­ploy­ers shall in­sure their em­ploy­ees with a pen­sion in­sti­tu­tion; if re­quired, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall make it pos­sible for em­ploy­ees to be in­sured with a fed­er­al pen­sion in­sti­tu­tion.
d.
self-em­ployed per­sons may in­sure them­selves on a vol­un­tary basis with a pen­sion in­sti­tu­tion.
e.
for spe­cif­ic groups of self-em­ployed per­sons, the Con­fed­er­a­tion may de­clare the oc­cu­pa­tion­al pen­sion scheme to be com­puls­ory, either in gen­er­al terms or for in­di­vidu­al risks only.

3The oc­cu­pa­tion pen­sion scheme is fun­ded from the con­tri­bu­tions of those in­sured, whereby em­ploy­ers must pay a min­im­um of one half of the con­tri­bu­tions of their em­ploy­ees.

4Pen­sion schemes must sat­is­fy the min­im­um re­quire­ments un­der fed­er­al law; the Con­fed­er­a­tion may provide for na­tion­al meas­ures to re­solve par­tic­u­lar dif­fi­culties.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Art. 114 Unemployment insurance

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on un­em­ploy­ment in­sur­ance.

2In do­ing so, it shall ad­here to the fol­low­ing prin­ciples:

a.
the in­sur­ance guar­an­tees ap­pro­pri­ate com­pens­a­tion for loss of earn­ings and sup­ports meas­ures to pre­vent and com­bat un­em­ploy­ment;
b.
the in­sur­ance is com­puls­ory for em­ploy­ees; the law may provide for ex­cep­tions;
c.
self-em­ployed per­sons may in­sure them­selves vol­un­tar­ily.

3The in­sur­ance is fun­ded by the con­tri­bu­tions from those in­sured, whereby one half of the con­tri­bu­tions of em­ploy­ees shall be paid by their em­ploy­ers.

4Con­fed­er­a­tion and Can­tons shall provide sub­sidies in ex­traordin­ary cir­cum­stances.

5The Con­fed­er­a­tion may en­act reg­u­la­tions on so­cial as­sist­ance for the un­em­ployed.

Art. 115 Support for persons in need

Per­sons in need shall be sup­por­ted by their Can­ton of res­id­ence. The Con­fed­er­a­tion reg­u­lates ex­cep­tions and powers.

Art. 116 Child allowances and maternity insurance

1In the ful­fil­ment of its du­ties, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take ac­count of the needs of fam­il­ies. It may sup­port meas­ures for the pro­tec­tion of fam­il­ies.

2It may is­sue reg­u­la­tions on child al­low­ances and op­er­ate a fed­er­al fam­ily al­low­ances com­pens­a­tion fund.

3It shall es­tab­lish a ma­ter­nity in­sur­ance scheme. It may also re­quire per­sons who can­not be­ne­fit from that in­sur­ance to make con­tri­bu­tions.

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion may de­clare par­ti­cip­a­tion in a fam­ily al­low­ances com­pens­a­tion fund and the ma­ter­nity in­sur­ance scheme to be com­puls­ory, either in gen­er­al terms or for in­di­vidu­al sec­tions of the pop­u­la­tion, and make its sub­sidies de­pend­ent on ap­pro­pri­ate sub­sidies be­ing made by the Can­tons.

Art. 117 Health and accident insurance

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on health and ac­ci­dent in­sur­ance.

2It may de­clare health and the ac­ci­dent in­sur­ance to be com­puls­ory, either in gen­er­al terms or for in­di­vidu­al sec­tions of the pop­u­la­tion.

Art. 117a Primary medical care

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall with­in the scope of their powers en­sure the ad­equate pro­vi­sion of high qual­ity primary med­ic­al care that is ac­cess­ible to all. They shall re­cog­nise and pro­mote fam­ily medi­cine as an es­sen­tial com­pon­ent of primary care.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on:

a.
ba­sic and con­tinu­ing edu­ca­tion and train­ing for fam­ily medi­cine pro­fes­sions and the re­quire­ments for prac­tising these pro­fes­sions;
b.
ap­pro­pri­ate re­mu­ner­a­tion for fam­ily medi­cine ser­vices.

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 18 May 2014, in force since 18 May 2014 (FedD of 19 Sept. 2013, FCD of 18 Aug. 2014; AS 2014 2769; BBl 2010 2939, 2011 7553, 2013 7347, 2014 6349).

Art. 118 Health protection

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall, with­in the lim­its of its powers, take meas­ures for the pro­tec­tion of health.

2It shall le­gis­late on:

a.
the use of food­stuffs as well as thera­peut­ic products, nar­cot­ics, or­gan­isms, chem­ic­als and items that may be dan­ger­ous to health;
b.
the com­bat­ing of com­mu­nic­able, wide­spread or par­tic­u­larly dan­ger­ous hu­man and an­im­al dis­eases;
c.
pro­tec­tion against ion­ising ra­di­ation.

Art. 118a Complementary medicine

The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall with­in the scope of their powers en­sure that con­sid­er­a­tion is giv­en to com­ple­ment­ary medi­cine.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 17 May 2009, in force since 17 May 2009 (FedD of 3 Oct. 2008, FCD of 21 Oct. 2009; AS 2009 5325; BBl 2005 6001, 2006 7591, 2008 8229, 2009 7539).

Art. 118b Research on human beings

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on re­search on hu­man be­ings where this is re­quired in or­der to pro­tect their dig­nity and pri­vacy. In do­ing so, it shall pre­serve the free­dom to con­duct re­search and shall take ac­count of the im­port­ance of re­search to health and so­ci­ety.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall ad­here to the fol­low­ing prin­ciples in re­la­tion to bio­lo­gic­al and med­ic­al re­search in­volving hu­man be­ings:

a.
It is a re­quire­ment for any re­search pro­ject that the par­ti­cipants or their leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ives have giv­en their in­formed con­sent. The law may provide for ex­cep­tions. A re­fus­al is bind­ing in every case.
b.
The risks and stress for the par­ti­cipants must not be dis­pro­por­tion­ate to the be­ne­fits of the re­search pro­ject.
c.
A re­search pro­ject in­volving per­sons lack­ing the ca­pa­city to con­sent may be con­duc­ted only if find­ings of equal value can­not be ob­tained from re­search in­volving per­sons who have the ca­pa­city to con­sent. If the re­search pro­ject is not ex­pec­ted to bring any im­me­di­ate be­ne­fit to the per­sons lack­ing the ca­pa­city to con­sent, the risks and stress must be min­im­al.
d.
An in­de­pend­ent as­sess­ment of the re­search pro­ject must have de­term­ined that the safety of the par­ti­cipants is guar­an­teed.

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 7 March 2010, in force since 7 March 2010 (FedD of 25 Sept. 2009, FCD of 15 April 2010; AS 2010 1569; BBl2007 6713, 2009 6649, 2010 2625).

Art. 119 Reproductive medicine and gene technology involving human beings

1Hu­man be­ings shall be pro­tec­ted against the mis­use of re­pro­duct­ive medi­cine and gene tech­no­logy.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the use of hu­man re­pro­duct­ive and ge­net­ic ma­ter­i­al. In do­ing so, it shall en­sure the pro­tec­tion of hu­man dig­nity, pri­vacy and the fam­ily and shall ad­here in par­tic­u­lar to the fol­low­ing prin­ciples:

a.
All forms of clon­ing and in­ter­fer­ence with the ge­net­ic ma­ter­i­al of hu­man re­pro­duct­ive cells and em­bry­os are un­law­ful.
b.
Non-hu­man re­pro­duct­ive and ge­net­ic ma­ter­i­al may neither be in­tro­duced in­to nor com­bined with hu­man re­pro­duct­ive ma­ter­i­al.
c.1
The pro­ced­ures for med­ic­ally-as­sisted re­pro­duc­tion may be used only if in­fer­til­ity or the risk of trans­mit­ting a ser­i­ous ill­ness can­not oth­er­wise be over­come, but not in or­der to con­ceive a child with spe­cif­ic char­ac­ter­ist­ics or to fur­ther re­search; the fer­til­isa­tion of hu­man egg cells out­side a wo­man's body is per­mit­ted only un­der the con­di­tions laid down by the law; no more hu­man egg cells may be de­veloped in­to em­bry­os out­side a wo­man's body than are re­quired for med­ic­ally-as­sisted re­pro­duc­tion.
d.
The dona­tion of em­bry­os and all forms of sur­rog­ate moth­er­hood are un­law­ful.
e.
The trade in hu­man re­pro­duct­ive ma­ter­i­al and in products ob­tained from em­bry­os is pro­hib­ited.
f.
The ge­net­ic ma­ter­i­al of a per­son may be ana­lysed, re­gistered or made pub­lic only with the con­sent of the per­son con­cerned or if the law so provides.
g.
Every per­son shall have ac­cess to data re­lat­ing to their an­ces­try.

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 14 June 2015, in force since 14 June 2015 (FedD of 12 Dec. 2014, FCD of 21 Aug. 2015; AS 2015 2887; BBl 2013 5853, 2014 9675, 2015 6313).

Art. 119a Transplant medicine

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late in the field of or­gan, tis­sue and cell trans­plants. In do­ing so, it shall en­sure the pro­tec­tion of hu­man dig­nity, pri­vacy and health.

2It shall in par­tic­u­lar lay down cri­ter­ia for the fair al­loc­a­tion of or­gans.

3Any dona­tion of hu­man or­gans, tis­sue and cells must be free of charge. The trade in hu­man or­gans is pro­hib­ited.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 7 Feb. 1999, in force since 1 Jan 2000 (FedD of 26 June 1998, FCD of 23 March 1999; AS 1999 1341; BBl 1997 III 653, 1998 3473, 1999 2912 8768).

Art. 120 Non-human gene technology *

1Hu­man be­ings and their en­vir­on­ment shall be pro­tec­ted against the mis­use of gene tech­no­logy.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall le­gis­late on the use of re­pro­duct­ive and ge­net­ic ma­ter­i­al from an­im­als, plants and oth­er or­gan­isms. In do­ing so, it shall take ac­count of the dig­nity of liv­ing be­ings as well as the safety of hu­man be­ings, an­im­als and the en­vir­on­ment, and shall pro­tect the ge­net­ic di­versity of an­im­al and plant spe­cies.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion

Section 9 Residence and Permanent Settlement of Foreign Nationals

Art. 121 Legislation on foreign nationals and asylum *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion on entry to and exit from Switzer­land, the res­id­ence and the per­man­ent set­tle­ment of for­eign na­tion­als and on the grant­ing of asylum.

2For­eign na­tion­als may be ex­pelled from Switzer­land if they pose a risk to the se­cur­ity of the coun­try.

3Ir­re­spect­ive of their status un­der the law on for­eign na­tion­als, for­eign na­tion­als shall lose their right of res­id­ence and all oth­er leg­al rights to re­main in Switzer­land if they:

a.
are con­victed with leg­al bind­ing ef­fect of an of­fence of in­ten­tion­al hom­icide, rape or any oth­er ser­i­ous sexu­al of­fence, any oth­er vi­ol­ent of­fence such as rob­bery, the of­fences of traf­fick­ing in hu­man be­ings or in drugs, or a burg­lary of­fence; or
b.
have im­prop­erly claimed so­cial in­sur­ance or so­cial as­sist­ance be­ne­fits.3

4The le­gis­lature shall define the of­fences covered by para­graph 3 in more de­tail. It may add ad­di­tion­al of­fences.4

5For­eign na­tion­als who lose their right of res­id­ence and all oth­er leg­al rights to re­main in Switzer­land in ac­cord­ance with para­graphs 3 and 4 must be de­por­ted from Switzer­land by the com­pet­ent au­thor­ity and must be made sub­ject to a ban on entry of from 5-15 years. In the event of re­offend­ing, the ban on entry is for 20 years.5

6Any per­son who fails to com­ply with the ban on entry or oth­er­wise enters Switzer­land il­leg­ally com­mits an of­fence. The le­gis­lature shall is­sue the rel­ev­ant pro­vi­sions.6


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 9 Feb. 2014 (FedD of 27 Sept. 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014; AS 2014 1391; BBl 2011 6269, 2012 3869, 2013 291 7351, 2014 4117).
3 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2010, in force since 28 Nov. 2010 (FedD of 18 June 2010, FCD of 17 March 2011; AS 2011 1199; BBl 2008 1927, 2009 5097, 2010 4241, 2011 2771).
4 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2010, in force since 28 Nov. 2010 (FedD of 18 June 2010, FCD of 17 March 2011; AS 2011 1199; BBl 2008 1927, 2009 5097, 2010 4241, 2011 2771).
5 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2010, in force since 28 Nov. 2010 (FedD of 18 June 2010, FCD of 17 March 2011; AS 2011 1199; BBl 2008 1927, 2009 5097, 2010 4241, 2011 2771).
6 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2010, in force since 28 Nov. 2010 (FedD of 18 June 2010, FCD of 17 March 2011; AS 2011 1199; BBl 2008 1927, 2009 5097, 2010 4241, 2011 2771).

Art. 121a Control of immigration*

1Switzer­land shall con­trol the im­mig­ra­tion of for­eign na­tion­als autonom­ously.

2The num­ber of res­id­ence per­mits for for­eign na­tion­als in Switzer­land shall be re­stric­ted by an­nu­al quant­it­at­ive lim­its and quotas. The quant­it­at­ive lim­its ap­ply to all per­mits is­sued un­der le­gis­la­tion on for­eign na­tion­als, in­clud­ing those re­lated to asylum mat­ters. The right to per­man­ent res­id­ence, fam­ily re­uni­fic­a­tion and so­cial be­ne­fits may be re­stric­ted.

3The an­nu­al quant­it­at­ive lim­its and quotas for for­eign na­tion­als in gain­ful em­ploy­ment must be de­term­ined ac­cord­ing to Switzer­land's gen­er­al eco­nom­ic in­terests, while giv­ing pri­or­ity to Swiss cit­izens; the lim­its and quotas must in­clude cross-bor­der com­muters. The de­cis­ive cri­ter­ia for grant­ing res­id­ence per­mits are primar­ily a ap­plic­a­tion from an em­ploy­er, abil­ity to in­teg­rate, and ad­equate, in­de­pend­ent means of sub­sist­ence.

4No in­ter­na­tion­al agree­ments may be con­cluded that breach this Art­icle.

5The law shall reg­u­late the de­tails.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 9 Feb. 2014 (FedD of 27 Sept. 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014; AS 2014 1391; BBl 2011 6269, 2012 3869, 2013 291 7351, 2014 4117).
2* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion.

Section 10 Civil Law, Criminal Law, Weights and Measures

Art. 122 Civil law

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion in the field of civil law and the law of civil pro­ced­ure.

2The Can­tons are re­spons­ible for the or­gan­isa­tion of the courts and the ad­min­is­tra­tion of justice in civil mat­ters, un­less the law provides oth­er­wise.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 March 2000, in force since 1 Jan. 2007 (FedD of 8 Oct. 1999, FCD of 17 May 2000, FedD of 8 March 2005; AS 2002 3148, 2006 1059; BBl 1997 I 1, 1999 8633, 2000 2990, 20014202).

Art. 123 Criminal law

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion in the field of crim­in­al law and the law of crim­in­al pro­ced­ure.

2The Can­tons are re­spons­ible for the or­gan­isa­tion of the courts, the ad­min­is­tra­tion of justice in crim­in­al cases as well as for the ex­e­cu­tion of pen­al­ties and meas­ures, un­less the law provides oth­er­wise.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion may is­sue reg­u­la­tions on the ex­e­cu­tion of pen­al­ties and meas­ures. It may grant sub­sidies to the Can­tons for:

a.
the con­struc­tion of pen­al in­sti­tu­tions;
b.
im­prove­ments in the ex­e­cu­tion of pen­al­ties and meas­ures;
c.
in­sti­tu­tions that con­duct edu­cat­ive meas­ures for the be­ne­fit of chil­dren, ad­oles­cents and young adults.2

1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 March 2000, in force since 1 April 2003 (FCD of 8 Oct. 1999, FCD of 17 May 2000, FCD of 24 Sept. 2002; AS 2002 3148; BBl 1997 I 1, 1999 8633, 2000 2990, 2001 4202).
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 123a

1If a sex of­fend­er or vi­ol­ent of­fend­er is re­garded in the re­ports re­quired for sen­ten­cing as be­ing ex­tremely dan­ger­ous and his or her con­di­tion as­sessed as un­treat­able, he or she must be in­car­cer­ated un­til the end of his or her life due to the high risk of re­offend­ing. Early re­lease and re­lease on tem­por­ary li­cence are not per­mit­ted.

2Only if new sci­entif­ic find­ings prove that the of­fend­er can be cured and thus no longer rep­res­ents a danger to the pub­lic can new re­ports be drawn up. If the of­fend­er is re­leased on the basis of these new re­ports, the au­thor­it­ies grant­ing his or her re­lease must ac­cept li­ab­il­ity if he re­offends.

3All re­ports as­sess­ing sex of­fend­ers or vi­ol­ent of­fend­ers must be drawn up by at least two ex­per­i­enced spe­cial­ists who are in­de­pend­ent of each oth­er. The re­ports must take ac­count of all the prin­ciples that are im­port­ant for the as­sess­ment.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 8 Feb. 2004, in force since 8 Feb. 2004 (FedD of 20 June 2003, FCD of 21 April 2004; AS 2004 2341; BBl 2000 3336, 2001 3433, 2003 4434, 2004 2199).

Art. 123b No time limit for the right to prosecute or for penalties for sexual or pornography offences involving prepubescent children

The right to pro­sec­ute sexu­al or por­no­graphy of­fences in­volving pre­pu­bes­cent chil­dren and the pen­al­ties for such of­fences is not sub­ject to a time lim­it.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 30 Nov. 2008, in force since 30 Nov. 2008 (FedD of 13 June 2008, FCD of 23 Jan. 2009; AS 2009 471; BBl 2006 3657, 2007 5369, 2008 5245, 2009 605).

Art. 123c Measure relating to sexual offences involving children or persons who are incapable of judgement or resistance

Per­sons con­victed of harm­ing the sexu­al in­teg­rity of a child or of a de­pend­ent per­son shall per­man­ently lose the right to carry on a pro­fes­sion or vol­un­tary activ­ity in­volving minors or de­pend­ent per­sons.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 18 May 2014, in force since 18 May 2014 (FCD of 20 Feb. 2014; AS 2014 2771; BBl 2009 7021, 2011 4435, 2012 8819, 2014 6349 1779).

Art. 124 Victim support

The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons shall en­sure that per­sons who have suffered harm to their phys­ic­al, men­tal or sexu­al in­teg­rity as the res­ult of a crim­in­al act re­ceive sup­port and are ad­equately com­pensated if they ex­per­i­ence fin­an­cial dif­fi­culties as a res­ult of that crim­in­al act.

Art. 125 Weights and measures

The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion on weights and meas­ures.

Chapter 3 Financial System

Art. 126 Financial management

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall main­tain its in­come and ex­pendit­ure in bal­ance over time.

2The ceil­ing for total ex­pendit­ure that is to be ap­proved in the budget is based on the ex­pec­ted in­come after tak­ing ac­count of the eco­nom­ic situ­ation.

3Ex­cep­tion­al fin­an­cial re­quire­ments may jus­ti­fy an ap­pro­pri­ate in­crease in the ceil­ing in terms of para­graph 2. The Fed­er­al As­sembly shall de­cide on any in­crease in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 159 para­graph 3 let­ter c.

4If the total ex­pendit­ure in the fed­er­al ac­counts ex­ceeds the ceil­ing in terms of para­graphs 2 or 3, com­pens­a­tion for this ad­di­tion­al ex­pendit­ure must be made in sub­sequent years.

5The de­tails are reg­u­lated by law.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 2 Dec. 2001, in force since 2 Dec. 2001 (FedD of 22 June 2001, FCD of 4 Feb. 2002; AS 2002 241; BBl 2000 4653, 2001 2387 2878, 2002 1209).

Art. 127 Principles of taxation

1The main struc­tur­al fea­tures of any tax, in par­tic­u­lar those li­able to pay tax, the ob­ject of the tax and its as­sess­ment, are reg­u­lated by law.

2Provided the nature of the tax per­mits it, the prin­ciples of uni­ver­sal­ity and uni­form­ity of tax­a­tion as well as the prin­ciple of tax­a­tion ac­cord­ing to abil­ity to pay are ap­plied.

3In­ter­can­t­on­al double tax­a­tion is pro­hib­ited. The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall take the meas­ures re­quired.

Art. 128 Direct taxes *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may levy a dir­ect tax:

a.
of a max­im­um of 11.5 per cent on the in­come of private in­di­vidu­als;
b.2
of a max­im­um of 8.5 per cent of the net profit of leg­al en­tit­ies;
c.3

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion, in fix­ing the tax­a­tion rates, shall take ac­count of the bur­den of dir­ect tax­a­tion im­posed by the Can­tons and com­munes.

3In re­la­tion to the tax on the in­come of private in­di­vidu­als, reg­u­lar re­vi­sions shall be made to com­pensate for the con­sequences of an in­creased tax bur­den due to in­fla­tion.

4The tax is as­sessed and col­lec­ted by the Can­tons. A min­im­um of 17 per cent of the gross rev­en­ue from tax­a­tion is al­loc­ated to the Can­tons. This share may be re­duced to 15 per cent if the con­sequences of fin­an­cial equal­isa­tion so re­quire.4


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2007 (FedD of 19 March 2004, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 2 Feb. 2006; AS 2006 1057; BBl 2003 1531, 2004 1363, 2005951).
3 Re­pealed by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2007 (FedD of 19 March 2004, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 2 Feb. 2006; AS 2006 1057; BBl 2003 1531, 2004 1363, 2005 951).
4 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 129 Tax harmonisation

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall set out prin­ciples on the har­mon­isa­tion of the dir­ect taxes im­posed by the Con­fed­er­a­tion, the Can­tons and the com­munes; it shall take ac­count of the ef­forts to­wards har­mon­isa­tion made by the Can­tons.

2Har­mon­isa­tion shall ex­tend to tax li­ab­il­ity, the ob­ject of the tax and the tax peri­od, pro­ced­ur­al law and the law re­lat­ing to tax of­fences. Mat­ters ex­cluded from har­mon­isa­tion shall in­clude in par­tic­u­lar tax scales, tax rates and tax al­low­ances.

3The Con­fed­er­a­tion may is­sue reg­u­la­tions to pre­vent un­jus­ti­fied tax be­ne­fits.

Art. 130 Value added tax*

1 The Con­fed­er­a­tion may levy value ad­ded tax on the sup­ply of goods, on ser­vices, in­clud­ing goods and ser­vices for per­son­al use, and on im­ports, at a stand­ard rate of a max­im­um of 6.5 per cent and at a re­duced rate of at least 2.0 per cent.

2The law may provide for the tax­a­tion of ac­com­mod­a­tion ser­vices at a rate between the re­duced rate and the stand­ard rate.2

3If, due to demo­graph­ic changes, the fin­an­cing of the Old-Age, Sur­viv­ors' and In­valid­ity In­sur­ance is no longer guar­an­teed, the stand­ard rate may be in­creased by fed­er­al act by a max­im­um of 1 per­cent­age point and the re­duced rate by a max­im­um of 0.3 of a per­cent­age point.3

3bisIn or­der to fin­ance rail­way in­fra­struc­ture, the rates shall be in­creased by 0.1 of a per­cent­age point.4

45 per cent of the non-ear­marked rev­en­ues shall be used to re­duce the health in­sur­ance premi­ums of per­sons on low in­comes, un­less an al­tern­at­ive meth­od of as­sist­ing such per­sons is provided for by law.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2007 (FedD of 19 March 2004, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 2 Feb. 2006; AS 2006 1057; BBl 2003 1531, 2004 1363, 2005951).* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion
2 The le­gis­lature has made use of this power; see Art. 25 para. 4 of the Value Ad­ded Tax Act of 12 June 2009 (SR 641.20), un­der which the rate of value ad­ded tax amounts to 3.7% (spe­cial rate for ac­com­mod­a­tion ser­vices), val­id from 1 Jan. 2018 un­til 31 Dec. 2027.
3 The le­gis­lature has made use of this power; see Art. 25 para. 1 and 2 of the Value Ad­ded Tax Act of 12 June 2009 (SR 641.20) un­der which the rates of value ad­ded tax amounts to 7.7% (stand­ard rate) and 2.5% (re­duced rate) val­id from 1 Jan. 2018 un­til 31 Dec. 2027.
4 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 9 Feb. 2014, in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (FedD of 20 June 2013, FCD of 13 May 2014, FCD of 2 June 2014, FCD of 6 June 2014; AS 2015 645; BBl 20106637, 2012 1577, 2013 4725 6518, 2014 4113 4117).

Art. 131 Special consumption taxes *

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may level spe­cial con­sump­tion taxes on:

a.
to­bacco and to­bacco products;
b.
dis­tilled spir­its;
c.
beer;
d.
auto­mo­biles and their parts;
e.
pet­ro­leum, oth­er min­er­al oils, nat­ur­al gas and products ob­tained by re­fin­ing these re­sources, as well as on mo­tor fuels.

2It may also levy:

a.
a sur­charge on the con­sump­tion tax on mo­tor fuels with the ex­cep­tion of avi­ation fuels;
b.
a charge that ap­plies when mo­tor vehicles are powered by means oth­er than mo­tor fuels in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 1 let­ter e.2

2bisIf the mon­ies are in­suf­fi­cient to carry out the tasks provided for un­der Art­icle 87b in con­nec­tion with air traffic, the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall levy a sur­charge on the con­sump­tion tax on avi­ation fuels.3

3The Can­tons shall re­ceive ten per cent of the net pro­ceeds from the tax­a­tion of dis­tilled spir­its. These funds must be used to fight the causes and ef­fects of sub­stance ad­dic­tion.


1* With trans­ition­al pro­vi­sion
2 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).
3 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 12 Feb. 2017, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (FedD of 30 Sept. 2016, FCD of 10 Nov. 2016 - AS 2017 6731; BBl 2015 2065, 2016 7587, 2017 3387).

Art. 132 Stamp duty and withholding tax

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion may levy a stamp duty on se­cur­it­ies, on re­ceipts for in­sur­ance premi­ums and on oth­er com­mer­cial deeds; deeds re­lat­ing to prop­erty and mort­gage trans­ac­tions are ex­empt from stamp duty.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion may levy a with­hold­ing tax on in­come from move­able cap­it­al as­sets, on lot­tery win­nings and on in­sur­ance be­ne­fits. 10 per cent of the tax rev­en­ue shall be al­loc­ated to the Can­tons.1


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

Art. 133 Customs duties

The Con­fed­er­a­tion is re­spons­ible for le­gis­la­tion on cus­toms du­ties and oth­er du­ties on the cross-bor­der move­ment of goods.

Art. 134 Exclusion of cantonal and communal taxation

Any­thing that is de­clared by fed­er­al le­gis­la­tion to be sub­ject to, or ex­empt from value ad­ded tax, spe­cial con­sump­tion taxes, stamp duty or with­hold­ing tax may not be made li­able to sim­il­ar taxes by the Can­tons or com­munes.

Art. 135 Equalisation of financial resources and burdens

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall is­sue reg­u­la­tions on the equit­able equal­isa­tion of fin­an­cial re­sources and bur­dens between the Con­fed­er­a­tion and the Can­tons as well as among the Can­tons.

2The equal­isa­tion of fin­an­cial re­sources and bur­dens is in­ten­ded in par­tic­u­lar to:

a.
re­duce the dif­fer­ences in fin­an­cial ca­pa­city among the Can­tons;
b.
guar­an­tee the Can­tons a min­im­um level of fin­an­cial re­sources;
c.
com­pensate for ex­cess­ive fin­an­cial bur­dens on in­di­vidu­al Can­tons due to geo-to­po­graph­ic­al or so­cio-demo­graph­ic factors;
d.
en­cour­age in­ter­can­t­on­al co­oper­a­tion on bur­den equal­isa­tion;
e.
main­tain the tax com­pet­it­ive­ness of the Can­tons by na­tion­al and in­ter­na­tion­al com­par­is­on.

3The funds for the equal­isa­tion of fin­an­cial re­sources shall be provided by those Can­tons with a high­er level of re­sources and by the Con­fed­er­a­tion. The pay­ments made by those Can­tons with a high­er level of re­sources shall amount to a min­im­um of two thirds and a max­im­um of 80 per cent of the pay­ments made by the Con­fed­er­a­tion.


1 Ad­op­ted by the pop­u­lar vote on 28 Nov. 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2008 (FCD of 3 Oct 2003, FCD of 26 Jan. 2005, FCD of 7 Nov. 2007; AS 2007 5765; BBl 2002 2291, 2003 6591, 2005 951).

A:
AHVG Bundesgesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AHVV Verordnung über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AIG Bundesgesetz über die Ausländerinnen und Ausländer und über die Integration
AVIG Bundesgesetz über die obligatorische Arbeitslosenversicherung und die Insolvenzentschädigung
AVO Verordnung über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AVO-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AdoV Verordnung über die Adoption
ArG Bundesgesetz über die Arbeit in Industrie, Gewerbe und Handel
ArGV 1 Verordnung 1 zum Arbeitsgesetz
AsylG Asylgesetz
B:
BBG Bundesgesetzüber die Berufsbildung
BEG Bundesgesetz über Bucheffekten
BEHG Bundesgesetz über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BEHV Verordnung über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BG-HAÜ Bundesgesetz zum Haager Adoptionsübereinkommen und über Massnahmen zum Schutz des Kindes bei internationalen Adoptionen
BG-KKE Bundesgesetz über internationale Kindesentführung und die Haager Übereinkommen zum Schutz von Kindern und Erwachsenen
BGBB Bundesgesetz über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
BGFA Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit der Anwältinnen und Anwälte
BGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesgericht
BIV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Insolvenz von Banken und Effektenhändlern
BPG Bundespersonalgesetz
BPR Bundesgesetz über die politischen Rechte
BV Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft
BVG Bundesgesetz über die berufliche Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
BZG Bundesgesetz über den Bevölkerungsschutz und den Zivilschutz
BankG Bundesgesetz über die Banken und Sparkassen
BankV Verordnung über die Banken und Sparkassen
BetmG Bundesgesetz über die Betäubungsmittel und die psychotropen Stoffe
BewG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BewV Verordnung über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BöB Bundesgesetz über das öffentliche Beschaffungswesen
BüG Bundesgesetz über Erwerb und Verlust des Schweizer Bürgerrechts
D:
DBG Bundesgesetz über die direkte Bundessteuer
DSG Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
E:
EBG Eisenbahngesetz
EMRK Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten
EOG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerbsersatz für Dienstleistende und bei Mutterschaft
EOV Verordnung zum Erwerbsersatzgesetz
EÖBV Verordnung über die elektronische öffentliche Beurkundung
F:
FHG Bundesgesetz über den eidgenössischen Finanzhaushalt
FINMAG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzmarktaufsicht
FKG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzkontrolle
FMedG Bundesgesetz über die medizinisch unterstützte Fortpflanzung
FZG Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit in der beruflichen Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
FinfraG Bundesgesetz über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV Verordnung über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FusG Bundesgesetz über Fusion, Spaltung, Umwandlung und Vermögensübertragung
G:
GBV Grundbuchverordnung
GSG Bundesgesetz über die von der Schweiz als Gaststaat gewährten Vorrechte, Immunitäten und Erleichterungen sowie finanziellen Beiträge
GUMG Bundesgesetz über genetische Untersuchungen beim Menschen
GeBüV Verordnung über die Führung und Aufbewahrung der Geschäftsbücher
GebV SchKG Gebührenverordnung zum Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
GlG Bundesgesetz über die Gleichstellung von Frau und Mann
H:
HEsÜ Übereinkommen über den internationalen Schutz von Erwachsenen
HKsÜ Übereinkommen
HRegV Handelsregisterverordnung
I:
IPRG Bundesgesetz über das Internationale Privatrecht
J:
JStG Bundesgesetz über das Jugendstrafrecht
JStPO Schweizerische Jugendstrafprozessordnung
K:
KAG Bundesgesetz über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KAKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KG Bundesgesetz über Kartelle und andere Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
KKV Verordnung über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KOV Verordnung über die Geschäftsführung der Konkursämter (KOV)
KVG Bundesgesetz über die Krankenversicherung
L:
LVG Bundesgesetz über die wirtschaftliche Landesversorgung
LugÜ Übereinkommen über die gerichtliche Zuständigkeit und die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung von Entscheidungen in Zivil- und Handelssachen
M:
MSchG Bundesgesetz über den Schutz von Marken und Herkunftsangaben
MStG Militärstrafgesetz
MWSTG Bundesgesetz über die Mehrwertsteuer
MWSTV Mehrwertsteuerverordnung
O:
OAV-SchKG Verordnung betreffend die Oberaufsicht über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
OHG Bundesgesetz über die Hilfe an Opfer von Straftaten
OR Bundesgesetz betreffend die Ergänzung des Schweizerischen Zivilgesetzbuches (Fünfter Teil: Obligationenrecht)
P:
PAVO Verordnung über die Aufnahme von Pflegekindern
PBV Verordnung über die Bekanntgabe von Preisen
ParlG Bundesgesetz über die Bundesversammlung
PartG Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
PatGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundespatentgericht
PfG Pfandbriefgesetz
PrHG Bundesgesetz über die Produktehaftpflicht
PüG Preisüberwachungsgesetz
R:
RAG Bundesgesetz über die Zulassung und Beaufsichtigung der Revisorinnen und Revisoren
S:
SVG Strassenverkehrsgesetz
SVKG Verordnung über die Sanktionen bei unzulässigen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
SchKG Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
StBOG Bundesgesetz über die Organisation der Strafbehörden des Bundes
StG Bundesgesetz über die Stempelabgaben
StGB Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch
StHG Bundesgesetz über die Harmonisierung der direkten Steuern der Kantone und Gemeinden
StPO Schweizerische Strafprozessordnung
StV Verordnung über die Stempelabgaben
SuG Bundesgesetz über Finanzhilfen und Abgeltungen
U:
URG Bundesgesetz über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
URV Verordnung über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
UVG Bundesgesetz über die Unfallversicherung
UVV Verordnung über die Unfallversicherung
UWG Bundesgesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb
V:
VAG Bundesgesetz betreffend die Aufsicht über Versicherungsunternehmen
VASR Verordnung über die anerkannten Standards zur Rechnungslegung
VBB Verordnung über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
VBVV Verordnung über die Vermögensverwaltung im Rahmen einer Beistandschaft oder Vormundschaft
VDSG Verordnung zum Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
VG Bundesgesetz über die Verantwortlichkeit des Bundes sowie seiner Behördemitglieder und Beamten
VGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesverwaltungsgericht
VKA Verordnung über die Katastrophenhilfe im Ausland
VKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von Versicherungsunternehmen
VPAV Verordnung betreffend die Pfändung, Arrestierung und Verwertung von Versicherungsansprüchen nach dem Bundesgesetz vom 2. April 1908 über den Versicherungsvertrag
VStG Bundesgesetz über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStV Verordnung über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStrR Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsstrafrecht
VVAG Verordnung über die Pfändung und Verwertung von Anteilen an Gemeinschaftsvermögen
VVG Bundesgesetz über den Versicherungsvertrag
VZG Verordnung des Bundesgerichts über die Zwangsverwertung von Grundstücken
VegüV Verordnung gegen übermässige Vergütungen bei börsenkotierten Aktiengesellschaften
VeÜ-ZSSV Verordnung über die elektronische Übermittlung im Rahmen von Zivil- und Strafprozessen sowie von Schuldbetreibungs- und Konkursverfahren
VwVG Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsverfahren
VüKU Verordnung über die Kontrolle von Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen
VüS Verordnung über das Strafregister
W:
WG Bundesgesetz über Waffen, Waffenzubehör und Munition
Z:
ZG Zollgesetz
ZGB Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch
ZPO Schweizerische Zivilprozessordnung
ZStV Zivilstandsverordnung
ZTG Zolltarifgesetz
Ü:
ÜbZ Übereinkunft betreffend Zivilprozessrecht
ÜüAVaS Übereinkommen über die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung ausländischer Schiedssprüche
ÜüRK Übereinkommen über die Rechte des Kindes
ÜüSKZGIA Übereinkommen über den Schutz von Kindern und die Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Internationalen Adoption
ÜüiZR Übereinkommen über den internationalen Zugang zur Rechtspflege
ÜüzAiK Übereinkommen über die zivilrechtlichen Aspekte internationaler Kindesentführung
C:
CC Code civil suisse
CEDH Convention de sauvegarde des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales
CL Convention concernant la compétence judiciaire, la reconnaissance et l'exécution des décisions en matière civile et commerciale
CLaH 2000 Convention sur la protection internationale des adultes
CLaH 96 Convention
CO Loi fédérale complétant le Code civil suisse
CP Code pénal suisse
CPC Code de procédure civile
CPM Code pénal militaire
CPP Code de procédure pénale suisse
Caclid Convention sur les aspects civils de l'enlèvement international d'enfants
Cpecmdi Convention sur la protection des enfants et la coopération en matière d'adoption internationale
Cprlsaé Convention pour la reconnaissance et l'exécution des sentences arbitrales étrangères
Crdl Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
Crpc Convention relative à la procédure civile
Cst. Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse
Ctflij Convention tendant à faciliter l'accès international à la justice
D:
DPA Loi fédérale sur le droit pénal administratif
DPMin Loi fédérale régissant la condition pénale des mineurs
L:
LAA Loi fédérale sur l'assurance-accidents
LACI Loi fédérale sur l'assurance-chômage obligatoire et l'indemnité en cas d'insolvabilité
LAGH Loi fédérale sur l'analyse génétique humaine
LAMal Loi fédérale sur l'assurance-maladie
LAP Loi fédérale sur l'approvisionnement économique du pays
LAPG Loi fédérale sur les allocations pour perte de gain en cas de service et de maternité
LAVI Loi fédérale sur l'aide aux victimes d'infractions
LAVS Loi fédérale sur l'assurance-vieillesse et survivants
LArm Loi fédérale sur les armes, les accessoires d'armes et les munitions
LAsi Loi sur l'asile
LB Loi fédérale sur les banques et les caisses d'épargne
LBVM Loi fédérale sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
LCA Loi fédérale sur le contrat d'assurance
LCD Loi fédérale contre la concurrence déloyale
LCF Loi fédérale sur le Contrôle fédéral des finances
LCR Loi fédérale sur la circulation routière
LCart Loi fédérale sur les cartels et autres restrictions à la concurrence
LCdF Loi fédérale sur les chemins de fer
LD Loi sur les douanes
LDA Loi fédérale sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins
LDFR Loi fédérale sur le droit foncier rural
LDIP Loi fédérale sur le droit international privé
LDP Loi fédérale sur les droits politiques
LEH Loi fédérale sur les privilèges, les immunités et les facilités, ainsi que sur les aides financières accordés par la Suisse en tant qu'Etat hôte
LEI Loi fédérale sur les étrangers et l'intégration
LEg Loi fédérale sur l'égalité entre femmes et hommes
LF-CLaH Loi fédérale relative à la Convention de La Haye sur l'adoption et aux mesures de protection de l'enfant en cas d'adoption internationale
LF-EEA Loi fédérale sur l'enlèvement international d'enfants et les Conventions de La Haye sur la protection des enfants et des adultes
LFAIE Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
LFC Loi sur les finances de la Confédération
LFINMA Loi sur l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers
LFLP Loi fédérale sur le libre passage dans la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LFPr Loi fédérale sur la formation professionnelle
LFus Loi fédérale sur la fusion, la scission, la transformation et le transfert de patrimoine
LHID Loi fédérale sur l'harmonisation des impôts directs des cantons et des communes
LIA Loi fédérale sur l'impôt anticipé (LIA)
LIFD Loi fédérale sur l'impôt fédéral direct
LIMF Loi fédérale sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés*
LLCA Loi fédérale sur la libre circulation des avocats
LLG Loi sur l'émission de lettres de gage
LMP Loi fédérale sur les marchés publics
LN Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition et la perte de la nationalité suisse
LOAP Loi fédérale sur l'organisation des autorités pénales de la Confédération
LP Loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
LPCC Loi fédérale sur les placements collectifs de capitaux*
LPD Loi fédérale sur la protection des données
LPM Loi fédérale sur la protection des marques et des indications de provenance
LPMA Loi fédérale sur la procréation médicalement assistée*
LPP Loi fédérale sur la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LPPCi Loi fédérale sur la protection de la population et sur la protection civile
LParl Loisur l'Assemblée fédérale
LPart Loi fédérale sur le partenariat enregistré entre personnes du même sexe
LPers Loi sur le personnel de la Confédération
LRCF Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité de la Confédération, des membres de ses autorités et de ses fonctionnaires
LRFP Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité du fait des produits
LSA Loi fédérale sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance
LSPr Loi fédérale concernant la surveillance des prix
LSR Loi fédérale sur l'agrément et la surveillance des réviseurs
LStup Loi fédérale sur les stupéfiants et les substances psychotropes
LSu Loi fédérale sur les aides financières et les indemnités
LT Loi fédérale sur les droits de timbre
LTAF Loi sur le Tribunal administratif fédéral
LTF Loi sur le Tribunal fédéral
LTFB Loi<em></em>sur le Tribunal fédéral des brevets
LTI Loi fédérale sur les titres intermédiés
LTVA Loi fédérale régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
LTaD Loi sur le tarif des douanes
LTr Loi fédérale sur le travail dans l'industrie, l'artisanat et le commerce
O:
OAAE Ordonnance sur l'acte authentique électronique
OACata Ordonnance sur l'aide en cas de catastrophe à l'étranger
OAIE Ordonnance sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
OAOF Ordonnance sur l'administration des offices de faillite
OAdo Ordonnance sur l'adoption
OB Ordonnance sur les banques et les caisses d'épargne
OBVM Ordonnance sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
OCEl-PCPP Ordonnance sur la communication électronique dans le cadre de procédures civiles et pénales et de procédures en matière de poursuite pour dettes et de faillite
ODAu Ordonnance sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins
ODFR Ordonnance sur le droit foncier rural
OEC Ordonnance sur l'état civil
OELP Ordonnance sur les émoluments perçus en application de la loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
OFA-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite des entreprises d'assurance
OFPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite de placements collectifs de capitaux
OGPCT Ordonnance sur la gestion du patrimoine dans le cadre d'une curatelle ou d'une tutelle
OHS-LP Ordonnance relative à la haute surveillance en matière de poursuite et de faillite
OIA Ordonnance sur l'impôt anticipé
OIB-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur l'insolvabilité des banques et des négociants en valeurs mobilières
OIMF Ordonnance sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés
OIMF-FINMA Ordonnance
OIP Ordonnance sur l'indication des prix
OLAA Ordonnance sur l'assurance-accidents
OLPD Ordonnance relative à la loi fédérale sur la protection des données
OLT 1 Ordonnance 1 relative à la loi sur le travail
ONCR Ordonnance sur les normes comptables reconnues
OPC Ordonnance concernant la saisie et la réalisation de parts de communautés
OPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPCC Ordonnance sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPE Ordonnance sur le placement d'enfants
ORAb Ordonnance contre les rémunérations abusives dans les sociétés anonymes cotées en bourse
ORC Ordonnance sur le registre du commerce
ORF Ordonnance sur le registre foncier
ORFI Ordonnance du Tribunal fédéral sur la réalisation forcée des immeubles
OS Ordonnance sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OS LCart Ordonnance sur les sanctions en cas de restrictions illicites à la concurrence
OS-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OSAss Ordonnance concernant la saisie, le séquestre et la réalisation des droits découlant d'assurances d'après la loi fédérale du 2 avril 1908 sur le contrat d'assurance
OT Ordonnance sur les droits de timbre
OTVA Ordonnance régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
Occd Ordonnance sur le contrôle des concentrations d'entreprises
Ocj Ordonnance sur le casier judiciaire
Olico Ordonnance concernant la tenue et la conservation des livres de comptes
P:
PA Loi fédérale sur la procédure administrative
PPMin Loi fédérale sur la procédure pénale applicable aux mineurs
R:
RAPG Règlement sur les allocations pour perte de gain
RAVS Règlement sur l'assurance-vieillesse et survivants
C:
C Convenzione
CC Codice civile svizzero
CEDU Convenzione per la salvaguardia dei diritti dell'uomo e delle libertà fondamentali
CLug Convenzione concernente la competenza giurisdizionale, il riconoscimento e l'esecuzione delle decisioni in materia civile e commerciale
CO Legge federale di complemento del Codice civile svizzero
CP Codice penale svizzero
CPC Codice di diritto processuale civile svizzero
CPM Codice penale militare
CPP Codice di diritto processuale penale svizzero
Ccrldsae Convenzione concernente il riconoscimento e l'esecuzione delle sentenze arbitrali estere
Cdf Convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo
Cost. Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera
Crapc Convenzione relativa alla procedura civile
Csacrim Convenzione sugli aspetti civili del rapimento internazionale di minori
Cspida Convenzione sulla protezione internazionale degli adulti
Cspmscmai Convenzione sulla protezione dei minori e sulla cooperazione in materia di adozione internazionale
Cvfliag Convenzione volta a facilitare l'accesso internazionale alla giustizia
D:
DPA Legge federale sul diritto penale amministrativo
DPMin Legge federale sul diritto penale minorile
L:
LADI Legge federale sull'assicurazione obbligatoria contro la disoccupazione e l'indennità per insolvenza
LAFE Legge federale sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
LAID Legge federale sull'armonizzazione delle imposte dirette dei Cantoni e dei Comuni
LAINF Legge federale sull'assicurazione contro gli infortuni
LAMal Legge federale sull'assicurazione malattie
LAP Legge federale sull'approvvigionamento economico del Paese
LAPub Legge federale sugli acquisti pubblici
LAV Legge federale concernente l'aiuto alle vittime di reati
LAVS Legge federale su l'assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
LArm Legge federale sulle armi, gli accessori di armi e le munizioni
LAsi Legge sull'asilo
LBCR Legge federale sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
LBVM Legge federale sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
LCA Legge federale sul contratto d'assicurazione
LCF Legge federale sul controllo federale delle finanze
LCSl Legge federale contro la concorrenza sleale
LCStr Legge federale sulla circolazione stradale
LCart Legge federale sui cartelli e altre limitazioni della concorrenza
LCit Legge federale su l'acquisto e la perdita della cittadinanza svizzera
LD Legge sulle dogane
LDA Legge federale sul diritto d'autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
LDFR Legge federale sul diritto fondiario rurale
LDIP Legge federale sul diritto internazionale privato
LDP Legge federale sui diritti politici
LEF Legge federale sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
LEGU Legge federale sugli esami genetici sull'essere umano
LF-CAA Legge federale relativa alla Convenzione dell'Aia sull'adozione e a provvedimenti per la protezione del minore nelle adozioni internazionali
LF-RMA Legge federale sul rapimento internazionale dei minori e sulle Convenzioni dell'Aia sulla protezione dei minori e degli adulti
LFC Legge federale sulle finanze della Confederazione
LFINMA Legge federale concernente l'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari
LFLP Legge federale sul libero passaggio nella previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l'invalidità
LFPr Legge federale sulla formazione professionale
LFus Legge federale sulla fusione, la scissione, la trasformazione e il trasferimento di patrimonio
LICol Legge federale sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
LIFD Legge federale sull'imposta federale diretta
LIP Legge federale sull'imposta preventiva
LIPG Legge federale sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno per chi presta servizio e in caso di maternità
LIVA Legge federale concernente l'imposta sul valore aggiunto
LInFi Legge federale sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
LL Legge federale sul lavoro nell'industria, nell'artigianato e nel commercio
LLCA Legge federale sulla libera circolazione degli avvocati
LOAP Legge federale sull'organizzazione delle autorità penali della Confederazione
LOF Legge sulle obbligazioni fondiarie
LPAM Legge federale concernente la procreazione con assistenza medica
LPD Legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
LPM Legge federale sulla protezione dei marchi e delle indicazioni di provenienza
LPP Legge federale sulla previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l'invalidità
LPPC Legge federale sulla protezione della popolazione e sulla protezione civile
LPar Legge federale sulla parità dei sessi
LParl Legge federale sull'Assemblea federale
LPers Legge sul personale federale
LRDP Legge federale sulla responsabilità per danno da prodotti
LResp Legge federale su la responsabilità della Confederazione, dei membri delle autorità federali e dei funzionari federali
LSA Legge federale sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione
LSO Legge federale sui privilegi, le immunità e le facilitazioni, nonché sugli aiuti finanziari accordati dalla Svizzera quale Stato ospite
LSPr Legge federale sulla sorveglianza dei prezzi
LSR Legge federalesull'abilitazione e la sorveglianza dei revisori
LStrI Legge federale sugli stranieri e la loro integrazione
LStup Legge federale sugli stupefacenti e sulle sostanze psicotrope
LSu Legge federale sugli aiuti finanziari e le indennità
LTAF Legge sul Tribunale amministrativo federale
LTB Legge federale sulle tasse di bollo
LTCo Legge federale sui titoli contabili
LTD Legge sulla tariffa delle dogane
LTF Legge sul Tribunale federale
LTFB Legge sul Tribunale federale dei brevetti
LUD Legge federale sull'unione domestica registrata di coppie omosessuali
Lferr Legge federale sulle ferrovie
O:
OABCT Ordinanza sull'amministrazione di beni nell'ambito di una curatela o di una tutela
OACata Ordinanza sull'aiuto in caso di catastrofe all'estero
OAFE Ordinanza sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
OAINF Ordinanza sull'assicurazione contro gli infortuni
OAMin Ordinanza sull'accoglimento di minori a scopo di affiliazione
OAPuE Ordinanza sugli atti pubblici in forma elettronica
OAV-LEF Ordinanza concernente l'alta vigilanza sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
OAVS Ordinanza sull'assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
OAdoz Ordinanza sull'adozione
OBCR Ordinanza sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
OBVM Ordinanza sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
OCE-PCPE Ordinanza sulla comunicazione per via elettronica nell'ambito di procedimenti civili e penali nonché di procedure d'esecuzione e fallimento
ODAu Ordinanza sul diritto d'autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
ODFR Ordinanza sul diritto fondiario rurale
ODiC Ordinanza concernente il pignoramento e la realizzazione di diritti in comunione
OFA-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento delle imprese di assicurazione
OFICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento degli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIB-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sull'insolvenza di banche e commercianti di valori mobiliari
OICol Ordinanza sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIP Ordinanza sull'indicazione dei prezzi
OIPG Ordinanza sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno
OIPrev Ordinanza sull'imposta preventiva
OIVA Ordinanza concernente l'imposta sul valore aggiunto
OInFi Ordinanza sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
OInFi-FINMA Ordinanza
OLL 1 Ordinanza 1 concernente la legge sul lavoro
OLPD Ordinanza relativa alla legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
ONCR Ordinanza sulle norme contabili riconosciute
ORC Ordinanza sul registro di commercio
ORF Ordinanza sul registro fondiario
OReSA Ordinanza contro le retribuzioni abusive nelle società anonime quotate in borsa
OS Ordinanza sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private
OS LCart Ordinanza sulle sanzioni in caso di limitazioni illecite della concorrenza
OS-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private
OSC Ordinanza sullo stato civile
OTB Ordinanza concernente le tasse di bollo
OTLEF Ordinanza sulle tasse riscosse in applicazione della legge federale sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
Occdci Ordinanza concernente il controllo delle concentrazioni di imprese
Ocg Ordinanza sul casellario giudiziale
Olc Ordinanza sulla tenuta e la conservazione dei libri di commercio
P:
PA Legge federale sulla procedura amministrativa
PPMin Legge federale di diritto processuale penale minorile
R:
RFF Regolamento del Tribunale federale concernente la realizzazione forzata di fondi
RPAss Regolamento
RUF Regolamento concernente l'amministrazione degli uffici dei fallimenti
A:
AIG Federal Act on Foreign Nationals and Integration
AdoV Ordinance on Adoption
AsylG Asylum Act
B:
BBG Federal Acton Vocational and Professional Education and Training
BEG Federal Act on Intermediated Securities
BG-KKE Federal Act on International Child Abduction and the Hague Conventions on the Protection of Children and Adults
BIV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on the Insolvency of Banks and Securities Dealers
BPR Federal Act on Political Rights
BV Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
BetmG Federal Act on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances
D:
DSG Federal Act on Data Protection
F:
FINMAG Federal Act on the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority
FMedG Federal Act on Medically Assisted Reproduction
FinfraG Federal Act on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
FinfraV Ordinance on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
FinfraV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
G:
GSG Federal Act on the Privileges, Immunities and Facilities and the Financial Subsidies granted by Switzerland as a Host State
GUMG Federal Act on Human Genetic Testing
GlG Federal Act on Gender Equality
K:
KAG Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes
KG Federal Act on Cartels and other Restraints of Competition
KKV Ordinance on Collective Investment Schemes
KKV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on Collective Investment Schemes
M:
MSchG Federal Act on the Protection of Trade Marks and Indications of Source
MWSTG Federal Act on Value Added Tax
MWSTV Ordinance on Value Added Tax
O:
OR Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code
P:
ParlG Federal Act on the Federal Assembly
PatGG Federal Act on the Federal Patent Court
S:
SVKG Ordinance on Sanctions imposed for Unlawful Restraints of Competition
StGB Swiss Criminal Code
StPO Swiss Criminal Procedure Code
U:
URG Federal Act on Copyright and Related Rights
V:
VDSG 235.11
VwVG Federal Act on Administrative Procedure
VüKU Ordinance on the Control of Concentrations of Undertakings
Z:
ZGB Swiss Civil Code
ZPO Swiss Civil Procedure Code
ZTG Customs Tariff Act
A:
AHVG Bundesgesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AHVV Verordnung über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AIG Bundesgesetz über die Ausländerinnen und Ausländer und über die Integration
AVIG Bundesgesetz über die obligatorische Arbeitslosenversicherung und die Insolvenzentschädigung
AVO Verordnung über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AVO-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AdoV Verordnung über die Adoption
ArG Bundesgesetz über die Arbeit in Industrie, Gewerbe und Handel
ArGV 1 Verordnung 1 zum Arbeitsgesetz
AsylG Asylgesetz
B:
BBG Bundesgesetzüber die Berufsbildung
BEG Bundesgesetz über Bucheffekten
BEHG Bundesgesetz über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BEHV Verordnung über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BG-HAÜ Bundesgesetz zum Haager Adoptionsübereinkommen und über Massnahmen zum Schutz des Kindes bei internationalen Adoptionen
BG-KKE Bundesgesetz über internationale Kindesentführung und die Haager Übereinkommen zum Schutz von Kindern und Erwachsenen
BGBB Bundesgesetz über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
BGFA Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit der Anwältinnen und Anwälte
BGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesgericht
BIV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Insolvenz von Banken und Effektenhändlern
BPG Bundespersonalgesetz
BPR Bundesgesetz über die politischen Rechte
BV Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft
BVG Bundesgesetz über die berufliche Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
BZG Bundesgesetz über den Bevölkerungsschutz und den Zivilschutz
BankG Bundesgesetz über die Banken und Sparkassen
BankV Verordnung über die Banken und Sparkassen
BetmG Bundesgesetz über die Betäubungsmittel und die psychotropen Stoffe
BewG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BewV Verordnung über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BöB Bundesgesetz über das öffentliche Beschaffungswesen
BüG Bundesgesetz über Erwerb und Verlust des Schweizer Bürgerrechts
D:
DBG Bundesgesetz über die direkte Bundessteuer
DSG Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
E:
EBG Eisenbahngesetz
EMRK Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten
EOG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerbsersatz für Dienstleistende und bei Mutterschaft
EOV Verordnung zum Erwerbsersatzgesetz
EÖBV Verordnung über die elektronische öffentliche Beurkundung
F:
FHG Bundesgesetz über den eidgenössischen Finanzhaushalt
FINMAG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzmarktaufsicht
FKG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzkontrolle
FMedG Bundesgesetz über die medizinisch unterstützte Fortpflanzung
FZG Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit in der beruflichen Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
FinfraG Bundesgesetz über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV Verordnung über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FusG Bundesgesetz über Fusion, Spaltung, Umwandlung und Vermögensübertragung
G:
GBV Grundbuchverordnung
GSG Bundesgesetz über die von der Schweiz als Gaststaat gewährten Vorrechte, Immunitäten und Erleichterungen sowie finanziellen Beiträge
GUMG Bundesgesetz über genetische Untersuchungen beim Menschen
GeBüV Verordnung über die Führung und Aufbewahrung der Geschäftsbücher
GebV SchKG Gebührenverordnung zum Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
GlG Bundesgesetz über die Gleichstellung von Frau und Mann
H:
HEsÜ Übereinkommen über den internationalen Schutz von Erwachsenen
HKsÜ Übereinkommen
HRegV Handelsregisterverordnung
I:
IPRG Bundesgesetz über das Internationale Privatrecht
J:
JStG Bundesgesetz über das Jugendstrafrecht
JStPO Schweizerische Jugendstrafprozessordnung
K:
KAG Bundesgesetz über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KAKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KG Bundesgesetz über Kartelle und andere Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
KKV Verordnung über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KOV Verordnung über die Geschäftsführung der Konkursämter (KOV)
KVG Bundesgesetz über die Krankenversicherung
L:
LVG Bundesgesetz über die wirtschaftliche Landesversorgung
LugÜ Übereinkommen über die gerichtliche Zuständigkeit und die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung von Entscheidungen in Zivil- und Handelssachen
M:
MSchG Bundesgesetz über den Schutz von Marken und Herkunftsangaben
MStG Militärstrafgesetz
MWSTG Bundesgesetz über die Mehrwertsteuer
MWSTV Mehrwertsteuerverordnung
O:
OAV-SchKG Verordnung betreffend die Oberaufsicht über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
OHG Bundesgesetz über die Hilfe an Opfer von Straftaten
OR Bundesgesetz betreffend die Ergänzung des Schweizerischen Zivilgesetzbuches (Fünfter Teil: Obligationenrecht)
P:
PAVO Verordnung über die Aufnahme von Pflegekindern
PBV Verordnung über die Bekanntgabe von Preisen
ParlG Bundesgesetz über die Bundesversammlung
PartG Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
PatGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundespatentgericht
PfG Pfandbriefgesetz
PrHG Bundesgesetz über die Produktehaftpflicht
PüG Preisüberwachungsgesetz
R:
RAG Bundesgesetz über die Zulassung und Beaufsichtigung der Revisorinnen und Revisoren
S:
SVG Strassenverkehrsgesetz
SVKG Verordnung über die Sanktionen bei unzulässigen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
SchKG Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
StBOG Bundesgesetz über die Organisation der Strafbehörden des Bundes
StG Bundesgesetz über die Stempelabgaben
StGB Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch
StHG Bundesgesetz über die Harmonisierung der direkten Steuern der Kantone und Gemeinden
StPO Schweizerische Strafprozessordnung
StV Verordnung über die Stempelabgaben
SuG Bundesgesetz über Finanzhilfen und Abgeltungen
U:
URG Bundesgesetz über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
URV Verordnung über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
UVG Bundesgesetz über die Unfallversicherung
UVV Verordnung über die Unfallversicherung
UWG Bundesgesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb
V:
VAG Bundesgesetz betreffend die Aufsicht über Versicherungsunternehmen
VASR Verordnung über die anerkannten Standards zur Rechnungslegung
VBB Verordnung über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
VBVV Verordnung über die Vermögensverwaltung im Rahmen einer Beistandschaft oder Vormundschaft
VDSG Verordnung zum Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
VG Bundesgesetz über die Verantwortlichkeit des Bundes sowie seiner Behördemitglieder und Beamten
VGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesverwaltungsgericht
VKA Verordnung über die Katastrophenhilfe im Ausland
VKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von Versicherungsunternehmen