With big laws like OR and ZGB this can take up to 30 seconds

Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code

English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force.

The Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation,

having considered the Dispatches of the Federal Council dated 3 March 1905 and 1 June 19091

decrees:

Division One: General Provisions

Title One: Creation of Obligations

Section One: Obligations arising by Contract

Art. 1

A. Con­clu­sion of the con­tract

I. Mu­tu­al ex­pres­sion of in­tent

1. In gen­er­al

 

1The con­clu­sion of a con­tract re­quires a mu­tu­al ex­pres­sion of in­tent by the parties.

2The ex­pres­sion of in­tent may be ex­press or im­plied.

Art. 2

2. Sec­ond­ary terms

 

1Where the parties have agreed on all the es­sen­tial terms, it is pre­sumed that the con­tract will be bind­ing not­with­stand­ing any re­ser­va­tion on sec­ond­ary terms.

2In the event of fail­ure to reach agree­ment on such sec­ond­ary terms, the court must de­term­ine them with due re­gard to the nature of the trans­ac­tion.

3The fore­go­ing is sub­ject to the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing the form of con­tracts.

Art. 3

II. Of­fer and ac­cept­ance

1. Of­fer sub­ject to time lim­it

 

1A per­son who of­fers to enter in­to a con­tract with an­oth­er per­son and sets a time lim­it for ac­cept­ance is bound by his of­fer un­til the time lim­it ex­pires.

2He is no longer bound if no ac­cept­ance has reached him on ex­piry of the time lim­it.

Art. 4

2. Of­fer without time lim­it

a. In the parties’ pres­ence

 

1Where an of­fer is made in the of­fer­ee’s pres­ence and no time lim­it for ac­cept­ance is set, it is no longer bind­ing on the of­fer­or un­less the of­fer­ee ac­cepts it im­me­di­ately.

2Con­tracts con­cluded by tele­phone are deemed to have been con­cluded in the parties’ pres­ence where they or their agents com­mu­nic­ated in per­son.

Art. 5

b. In the parties’ ab­sence

 

1Where an of­fer is made in the of­fer­ee’s ab­sence and no time lim­it for ac­cept­ance is set, it re­mains bind­ing on the of­fer­or un­til such time as he might ex­pect a reply sent duly and promptly to reach him.

2He may as­sume that his of­fer has been promptly re­ceived.

3Where an ac­cept­ance sent duly and promptly is late in reach­ing the of­fer­or and he does not wish to be bound by his of­fer, he must im­me­di­ately in­form the of­fer­ee.

Art. 6

3. Im­plied ac­cept­ance

 

Where the par­tic­u­lar nature of the trans­ac­tion or the cir­cum­stances are such that ex­press ac­cept­ance can­not reas­on­ably be ex­pec­ted, the con­tract is deemed to have been con­cluded if the of­fer is not re­jec­ted with­in a reas­on­able time.

Art. 6a

3a. Un­so­li­cited goods

 

1The send­ing of un­so­li­cited goods does not con­sti­tute an of­fer.

2The re­cip­i­ent is not ob­liged to re­turn or keep such goods.

3Where un­so­li­cited goods have ob­vi­ously been sent in er­ror, the re­cip­i­ent must in­form the sender.


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990, in force since 1 Ju­ly 1991 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354).

Art. 7

4. Non-bind­ing of­fer, an­nounce­ment of prices, dis­play

 

1An of­fer­or is not bound by his of­fer if he has made ex­press de­clar­a­tion to that ef­fect or such a re­ser­va­tion arises from the cir­cum­stances or from the par­tic­u­lar nature of the trans­ac­tion.

2The send­ing of tar­iffs, price lists and the like does not con­sti­tute an of­fer.

3By con­trast, the dis­play of mer­chand­ise with an in­dic­a­tion of its price does gen­er­ally con­sti­tute an of­fer.

Art. 8

5. Pub­licly prom­ised re­mu­ner­a­tion

 

1A per­son who pub­licly prom­ises re­mu­ner­a­tion or a re­ward in ex­change for the per­form­ance of an act must pay in ac­cord­ance with his prom­ise.

2If he with­draws his prom­ise be­fore per­form­ance has been made, he must re­im­burse any per­son in­cur­ring ex­pendit­ure in good faith on ac­count of the prom­ise up to the max­im­um amount prom­ised un­less he can prove that such per­son could not have provided the per­form­ance in ques­tion.

Art. 9

6. With­draw­al of of­fer and ac­cept­ance

 

1An of­fer is deemed not to have been made if its with­draw­al reaches the of­fer­ee be­fore or at the same time as the of­fer it­self or, where it ar­rives sub­sequently, if it is com­mu­nic­ated to the of­fer­ee be­fore he be­comes aware of the of­fer.

2The same ap­plies to a with­draw­al of an ac­cept­ance.

Art. 10

III. Entry in­to ef­fect of a con­tract con­cluded in the parties’ ab­sence

 

1A con­tract con­cluded in the parties’ ab­sence takes ef­fect from the time ac­cept­ance is sent.

2Where ex­press ac­cept­ance is not re­quired, the con­tract takes ef­fect from the time the of­fer is re­ceived.

Art. 11

B. Form of con­tracts

I. Form­al re­quire­ments and sig­ni­fic­ance in gen­er­al

 

1The valid­ity of a con­tract is not sub­ject to com­pli­ance with any par­tic­u­lar form un­less a par­tic­u­lar form is pre­scribed by law.

2In the ab­sence of any pro­vi­sion to the con­trary on the sig­ni­fic­ance and ef­fect of form­al re­quire­ments pre­scribed by law, the con­tract is val­id only if such re­quire­ments are sat­is­fied.

Art. 12

II. Writ­ten form

1. Form re­quired by law

a. Scope

 

Where the law re­quires that a con­tract be done in writ­ing, the re­quire­ment also ap­plies to any amend­ment to the con­tract with the ex­cep­tion of sup­ple­ment­ary col­lat­er­al clauses that do not con­flict with the ori­gin­al doc­u­ment.

Art. 13

b. Ef­fect

 

1A con­tract re­quired by law to be in writ­ing must be signed by all per­sons on whom it im­poses ob­lig­a­tions.

2...1


1 Re­pealed by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 19 Dec. 2003 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2005 (AS 2004 5085; BBl 2001 5679).

Art. 14

c. Sig­na­ture

 

1Sig­na­tures must be ap­pen­ded by hand by the parties to the con­tract.

2A sig­na­ture re­pro­duced by mech­an­ic­al means is re­cog­nised as suf­fi­cient only where such re­pro­duc­tion is cus­tom­ar­ily per­mit­ted, and in par­tic­u­lar in the case of sig­na­tures on large num­bers of is­sued se­cur­it­ies.

2bisAn au­then­tic­ated elec­tron­ic sig­na­ture com­bined with an au­then­tic­ated time stamp with­in the mean­ing of the Fed­er­al Act of 18 March 20161 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures is deemed equi­val­ent to a hand­writ­ten sig­na­ture, sub­ject to any stat­utory or con­trac­tu­al pro­vi­sion to the con­trary.2

3The sig­na­ture of a blind per­son is bind­ing only if it has been duly cer­ti­fied or if it is proved that he was aware of the terms of the doc­u­ment at the time of sign­ing.


1 SR 943.03
2 In­ser­ted by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 19 Dec. 2003 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures (AS 2004 5085; BBl 2001 5679). Amended by An­nex No II 4 of the FA of 18 March 2016 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2016 4651; BBl 2014 1001).

Art. 15

d. Mark in lieu of sig­na­ture

 

Sub­ject to the pro­vi­sions re­lat­ing to bills of ex­change, any per­son un­able to sign may make a duly cer­ti­fied mark by hand or give a cer­ti­fied de­clar­a­tion in lieu of a sig­na­ture.

Art. 16

2. Form stip­u­lated by con­tract

 

1Where the parties agree to make a con­tract sub­ject to form­al re­quire­ments not pre­scribed by law, it is pre­sumed that the parties do not wish to as­sume ob­lig­a­tions un­til such time as those re­quire­ments are sat­is­fied.

2Where the parties stip­u­late a writ­ten form without elab­or­at­ing fur­ther, the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing the writ­ten form as re­quired by law ap­ply to sat­is­fac­tion of that re­quire­ment.

Art. 17

C. Cause of ob­lig­a­tion

 

An ac­know­ledg­ment of debt is val­id even if it does not state the cause of the ob­lig­a­tion.

Art. 18

D. In­ter­pret­a­tion of con­tracts, sim­u­la­tion

 

1When as­sess­ing the form and terms of a con­tract, the true and com­mon in­ten­tion of the parties must be as­cer­tained without dwell­ing on any in­ex­act ex­pres­sions or des­ig­na­tions they may have used either in er­ror or by way of dis­guising the true nature of the agree­ment.

2A debt­or may not plead sim­u­la­tion as a de­fence against a third party who has be­come his cred­it­or in re­li­ance on a writ­ten ac­know­ledg­ment of debt.

Art. 19

E. Terms of the con­tract

I. Defin­i­tion of terms

 

1The terms of a con­tract may be freely de­term­ined with­in the lim­its of the law.

2Clauses that de­vi­ate from those pre­scribed by law are ad­miss­ible only where the law does not pre­scribe man­dat­ory forms of word­ing or where de­vi­ation from the leg­ally pre­scribed terms would con­tra­vene pub­lic policy, mor­al­ity or rights of per­son­al pri­vacy.

Art. 20

II. Nullity

 

1A con­tract is void if its terms are im­possible, un­law­ful or im­mor­al.

2However, where the de­fect per­tains only to cer­tain terms of a con­tract, those terms alone are void un­less there is cause to as­sume that the con­tract would not have been con­cluded without them.

Art. 21

III. Un­fair ad­vant­age

 

1Where there is a clear dis­crep­ancy between per­form­ance and con­sid­er­a­tion un­der a con­tract con­cluded as a res­ult of one party’s ex­ploit­a­tion of the oth­er’s straitened cir­cum­stances, in­ex­per­i­ence or thought­less­ness, the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age may de­clare with­in one year that he will not hon­our the con­tract and de­mand resti­tu­tion of any per­form­ance already made.

2The one-year peri­od com­mences on con­clu­sion of the con­tract.

Art. 22

IV. Agree­ment to con­clude a con­tract

 

1Parties may reach a bind­ing agree­ment to enter in­to a con­tract at a later date.

2Where in the in­terests of the parties the law makes the valid­ity of a con­tract con­di­tion­al on ob­serv­ance of a par­tic­u­lar form, the same ap­plies to the agree­ment to con­clude a con­tract.

Art. 23

F. De­fect in con­sent

I. Er­ror

1. Ef­fect

 

A party la­bour­ing un­der a fun­da­ment­al er­ror when en­ter­ing in­to a con­tract is not bound by that con­tract.

Art. 24

2. Cases of mis­take

 

1An er­ror is fun­da­ment­al in the fol­low­ing cases in par­tic­u­lar:

1.
where the party act­ing in er­ror in­ten­ded to con­clude a con­tract dif­fer­ent from that to which he con­sen­ted;
2.
where the party act­ing in er­ror has con­cluded a con­tract re­lat­ing to a sub­ject mat­ter oth­er than the sub­ject mat­ter he in­ten­ded or, where the con­tract relates to a spe­cif­ic per­son, to a per­son oth­er than the one he in­ten­ded;
3.
where the party act­ing in er­ror has prom­ised to make a sig­ni­fic­antly great­er per­form­ance or has ac­cep­ted a prom­ise of a sig­ni­fic­antly less­er con­sid­er­a­tion than he ac­tu­ally in­ten­ded;
4.
where the er­ror relates to spe­cif­ic facts which the party act­ing in er­ror con­sidered in good faith to be a ne­ces­sary basis for the con­tract.

2However, where the er­ror relates solely to the reas­on for con­clud­ing the con­tract, it is not fun­da­ment­al.

3Cal­cu­la­tion er­rors do not render a con­tract any less bind­ing, but must be cor­rec­ted.

Art. 25

3. In­vok­ing er­ror con­trary to good faith

 

1A per­son may not in­voke er­ror in a man­ner con­trary to good faith.

2In par­tic­u­lar, the party act­ing in er­ror re­mains bound by the con­tract he in­ten­ded to con­clude, provided the oth­er party ac­cepts that con­tract.

Art. 26

4. Er­ror by neg­li­gence

 

1A party act­ing in er­ror and in­vok­ing that er­ror to re­pu­di­ate a con­tract is li­able for any dam­age arising from the nullity of the agree­ment where the er­ror is at­trib­ut­able to his own neg­li­gence, un­less the oth­er party knew or should have known of the er­ror.

2In the in­terests of equity, the court may award fur­ther dam­ages to the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age.

Art. 27

5. In­cor­rect in­ter­me­di­ation

 

Where an of­fer to enter in­to a con­tract or the ac­cept­ance of that of­fer has been in­cor­rectly com­mu­nic­ated by a mes­sen­ger or oth­er in­ter­me­di­ary, the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing er­ror ap­ply mu­tatis mutandis.

Art. 28

II. Fraud

 

1A party in­duced to enter in­to a con­tract by the fraud of the oth­er party is not bound by it even if his er­ror is not fun­da­ment­al.

2A party who is the vic­tim of fraud by a third party re­mains bound by the con­tract un­less the oth­er party knew or should have known of the fraud at the time the con­tract was con­cluded.

Art. 29

III. Duress

1. Con­sent to con­tract

 

1Where a party has entered in­to a con­tract un­der duress from the oth­er party or a third party, he is not bound by that con­tract.

2Where the duress ori­gin­ates from a third party and the oth­er party neither knew nor should have known of it, a party un­der duress who wishes to be re­leased from the con­tract must pay com­pens­a­tion to the oth­er party where equity so re­quires.

Art. 30

2. Defin­i­tion of duress

 

1A party is un­der duress if, in the cir­cum­stances, he has good cause to be­lieve that there is im­min­ent and sub­stan­tial risk to his own life, limb, repu­ta­tion or prop­erty or to those of a per­son close to him.

2The fear that an­oth­er per­son might en­force a le­git­im­ate claim is taken in­to con­sid­er­a­tion only where the straitened cir­cum­stances of the party un­der duress have been ex­ploited in or­der to ex­tort ex­cess­ive be­ne­fits from him.

Art. 31

IV. De­fect of con­sent neg­ated by rat­i­fic­a­tion of the con­tract

 

1Where the party act­ing un­der er­ror, fraud or duress neither de­clares to the oth­er party that he in­tends not to hon­our the con­tract nor seeks resti­tu­tion for the per­form­ance made with­in one year, the con­tract is deemed to have been rat­i­fied.

2The one-year peri­od runs from the time that the er­ror or the fraud was dis­covered or from the time that the duress ended.

3The rat­i­fic­a­tion of a con­tract made void­able by duress or fraud does not auto­mat­ic­ally ex­clude the right to claim dam­ages.

Art. 32

G. Agency

I. With au­thor­isa­tion

1. In gen­er­al

a. Ef­fect of agency

 

1The rights and ob­lig­a­tions arising from a con­tract made by an agent in the name of an­oth­er per­son ac­crue to the per­son rep­res­en­ted, and not to the agent.

2Where the agent did not make him­self known as such when mak­ing the con­tract, the rights and ob­lig­a­tions arising there­from ac­crue dir­ectly to the per­son rep­res­en­ted only if the oth­er party must have in­ferred the agency re­la­tion­ship from the cir­cum­stances or did not care with whom the con­tract was made.

3Where this is not the case, the claim must be as­signed or the debt as­sumed in ac­cord­ance with the prin­ciples gov­ern­ing such meas­ures.

Art. 33

b. Scope of au­thor­ity

 

1Where au­thor­ity to act on be­half of an­oth­er stems from re­la­tion­ships es­tab­lished un­der pub­lic law, it is gov­erned by the pub­lic law pro­vi­sions of the Con­fed­er­a­tion or the can­tons.

2Where such au­thor­ity is con­ferred by means of the trans­ac­tion it­self, its scope is de­term­ined by that trans­ac­tion.

3Where a prin­cip­al grants such au­thor­ity to a third party and in­forms the lat­ter there­of, the scope of the au­thor­ity con­ferred on the third party is de­term­ined ac­cord­ing to word­ing of the com­mu­nic­a­tion made to him.

Art. 34

2. Au­thor­ity arising from a trans­ac­tion

a. Re­stric­tion and re­voc­a­tion

 

1A prin­cip­al au­thor­ising an­oth­er to act on his be­half by means of a trans­ac­tion may re­strict or re­voke such au­thor­ity at any time without pre­ju­dice to any rights ac­quired by those in­volved un­der ex­ist­ing leg­al re­la­tion­ships, such as an in­di­vidu­al con­tract of em­ploy­ment, a part­ner­ship agree­ment or an agency agree­ment.1

2Any ad­vance waiver of this right by the prin­cip­al is void.

3Where the rep­res­en­ted party has ex­pressly or de facto an­nounced the au­thor­ity he has con­ferred, he may not in­voke its total or par­tial re­voc­a­tion against a third party act­ing in good faith un­less he has like­wise an­nounced such re­voc­a­tion.


1 Amended by No II Art. 1 No 1 of the FA of 25 June 1971, in force since 1 Jan. 1972 (AS 1971 1465; BBl 1967 II 241). See also the Fi­nal and Trans­ition­al Pro­vi­sions of Title X, at the end of this Code.

Art. 35

b. Ef­fect of death, in­ca­pa­city, etc.

 

1The au­thor­ity con­ferred by means of a trans­ac­tion is ex­tin­guished on the loss of ca­pa­city to act, bank­ruptcy, death, or de­clar­a­tion of pre­sumed death of the prin­cip­al or the agent, un­less the con­trary has been agreed or is im­plied by the nature of the trans­ac­tion.1

2The same ap­plies on the dis­sol­u­tion of a leg­al en­tity or a com­pany or part­ner­ship entered in the com­mer­cial re­gister.

3The mu­tu­al per­son­al rights of the parties are un­af­fected.


1 Amended by An­nex No 10 of the FA of 19 Dec. 2008 (Adult Pro­tec­tion, Law of Per­sons and Law of Chil­dren), in force since 1 Jan. 2013 (AS 2011 725; BBl 2006 7001).

Art. 36

c. Re­turn of the in­stru­ment con­fer­ring au­thor­ity

 

1Where an agent has been is­sued with an in­stru­ment set­ting out his au­thor­ity, he must re­turn it or de­pos­it it with the court when that au­thor­ity has ended.

2Where the prin­cip­al or his leg­al suc­cessors have omit­ted to in­sist on the re­turn of such in­stru­ment, they are li­able to bona fide third parties for any dam­age arising from that omis­sion.

Art. 37

d. Time from which end of au­thor­ity takes ef­fect

 

1Un­til such time as an agent be­comes aware that his au­thor­ity has ended, his ac­tions con­tin­ue to give rise to rights and ob­lig­a­tions on the part of the prin­cip­al or the lat­ter’s leg­al suc­cessors as if the agent's au­thor­ity still ex­is­ted.

2This does not ap­ply in cases in which the third party is aware that the agent’s au­thor­ity has ended.

Art. 38

II. Without au­thor­ity

1. Rat­i­fic­a­tion

 

1Where a per­son without au­thor­ity enters in­to a con­tract on be­half of a third party, rights and ob­lig­a­tions do not ac­crue to the lat­ter un­less he rat­i­fies the con­tract.

2The oth­er party has the right to re­quest that the rep­res­en­ted party rat­i­fy the con­tract with­in a reas­on­able time, fail­ing which he is no longer bound by it.

Art. 39

2. Fail­ure to rat­i­fy

 

1Where rat­i­fic­a­tion is ex­pressly or im­pli­citly re­fused, ac­tion may be brought against the per­son who ac­ted as agent for com­pens­a­tion in re­spect of any dam­age caused by the ex­tinc­tion of the con­tract un­less he can prove that the oth­er party knew or should have known that he lacked the prop­er au­thor­ity.

2Where the agent is at fault, the court may or­der him to pay fur­ther dam­ages on grounds of equity.

3In all cases, claims for un­just en­rich­ment are re­served.

Art. 40

III. Re­ser­va­tion of spe­cial pro­vi­sions

 

The spe­cial pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing the au­thor­ity of agents and gov­ern­ing bod­ies of com­pan­ies and part­ner­ships and of re­gistered and oth­er au­thor­ised agents are un­af­fected.

Art. 40a

H. Re­voc­a­tion in door-to-door sales and sim­il­ar con­tracts

I. Scope of ap­plic­a­tion

 

1The fol­low­ing pro­vi­sions ap­ply to con­tracts re­lat­ing to goods and ser­vices in­ten­ded for the cus­tom­er’s per­son­al or fam­ily use where:

a.
the sup­pli­er of the goods or ser­vices ac­ted in a pro­fes­sion­al or com­mer­cial ca­pa­city; and
b.
the con­sid­er­a­tion from the buy­er ex­ceeds 100 francs.

2These pro­vi­sions do not ap­ply to in­sur­ance policies and to leg­al trans­ac­tions that are entered in­to by fin­an­cial in­sti­tu­tions and banks with­in the frame­work of ex­ist­ing fin­an­cial ser­vices con­tracts in ac­cord­ance with the Fed­er­al Act of 15 June 20182.3

3In the event of sig­ni­fic­ant change to the pur­chas­ing power of the na­tion­al cur­rency, the Fed­er­al Coun­cil shall ad­just the sum in­dic­ated in para. 1 let. b ac­cord­ingly.


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990, in force since 1 Ju­ly 1991 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354).
2 SR 950.1
3 Amended by An­nex No 1 of the Fin­an­cial Ser­vices Act of 15 June 2018, in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2019 4417; BBl 2015 8901).

Art. 40b

II. Gen­er­al prin­ciple

 

A cus­tom­er may re­voke his of­fer to enter in­to a con­tract or his ac­cept­ance of such an of­fer if the trans­ac­tion was pro­posed:

a.2
at his place of work, on res­id­en­tial premises or in their im­me­di­ate vi­cin­ity;
b.
on pub­lic trans­port or on a pub­lic thor­ough­fare;
c.
dur­ing a pro­mo­tion­al event held in con­nec­tion with an ex­cur­sion or sim­il­ar event;
d.3
by tele­phone or by a com­par­able means of sim­ul­tan­eous verbal com­mu­nic­a­tion.

1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990, in force since 1 Ju­ly 1991 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354).
2 Amended by No I of the FA of 18 June 1993, in force since 1 Jan. 1994 (AS 1993 3120; BBl 1993 I 757).
3 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).

Art. 40c

III. Ex­cep­tions

 

The cus­tom­er has no right of re­voc­a­tion:

a.
if he ex­pressly re­ques­ted the con­trac­tu­al ne­go­ti­ations;
b.
if he de­clared his of­fer or ac­cept­ance at a stand at a mar­ket or trade fair.

1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354). Amended by No I of the FA of 18 June 1993, in force since 1 Jan. 1994 (AS 1993 3120; BBl 1993 I 757).

Art. 40d

IV. Duty to in­form

 

1The sup­pli­er must in­form the cus­tom­er in writ­ing or in an­oth­er form that may be evid­enced by text of the lat­ter’s right of re­voc­a­tion and of the form and time lim­it to be ob­served when ex­er­cising such right, and must provide his ad­dress.2

2Such in­form­a­tion must be dated and per­mit iden­ti­fic­a­tion of the con­tract in ques­tion.

3The in­form­a­tion must be trans­mit­ted in such a man­ner that the cus­tom­er is aware of it when he pro­poses or ac­cepts the con­tract.3


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354). Amended by No I of the FA of 18 June 1993, in force since 1 Jan. 1994 (AS 1993 3120; BBl 1993 I 757).
2 Amended by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).
3 Amended by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).

Art. 40e

V. Re­voc­a­tion

1. Form and time lim­it

 

1Re­voc­a­tion need not be in any par­tic­u­lar form. The onus is on the cus­tom­er to prove that he has re­voked the con­tract with­in the time lim­it.2

2The pre­script­ive peri­od for re­voc­a­tion is 14 days and com­mences as soon as the cus­tom­er:3

a.
has pro­posed or ac­cep­ted the con­tract; and
b.
has be­come aware of the in­form­a­tion stip­u­lated in Art. 40d.

3The onus is on the sup­pli­er to prove when the cus­tom­er re­ceived the in­form­a­tion stip­u­lated in Art. 40d.

4The time lim­it is ob­served if, on the last day of the pre­script­ive peri­od, the cus­tom­er in­forms the sup­pli­er of re­voc­a­tion or posts his writ­ten no­tice of re­voc­a­tion.4


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354). Amended by No I of the FA of 18 June 1993, in force since 1 Jan. 1994 (AS 1993 3120; BBl 1993 I 757).
2 Amended by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).
3 Amended by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).
4 Amended by No I of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Re­vi­sion of the right of re­voc­a­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2016 (AS 2015 4107; BBl 2014 921 2993).

Art. 40f

2. Con­sequences

 

1Where the cus­tom­er has re­voked the con­tract, the parties must provide resti­tu­tion for any per­form­ance already made.

2Where the cus­tom­er has made use of the goods, he owes an ap­pro­pri­ate rent­al pay­ment to the sup­pli­er.

3Where the sup­pli­er has rendered ser­vices to him, the cus­tom­er must re­im­burse the sup­pli­er for out­lays and ex­penses in­curred in ac­cord­ance with the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing agency (Art. 402).

4The cus­tom­er does not owe the sup­pli­er any fur­ther com­pens­a­tion.


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990, in force since 1 Ju­ly 1991 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354).

Art. 40g


1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 5 Oct. 1990 (AS 1991 846; BBl 1986 II 354). Re­pealed by An­nex No 5 to the Civil Jur­is­dic­tion Act of 24 March 2000, with ef­fect from 1 Jan. 2001 (AS 2000 2355; BBl 1999 2829).

 

Section Two: Obligations in Tort

Art. 41

A. Gen­er­al prin­ciples

I. Con­di­tions of li­ab­il­ity

 

1Any per­son who un­law­fully causes dam­age to an­oth­er, wheth­er wil­fully or neg­li­gently, is ob­liged to provide com­pens­a­tion.

2A per­son who wil­fully causes dam­age to an­oth­er in an im­mor­al man­ner is like­wise ob­liged to provide com­pens­a­tion.

Art. 42

II. De­term­in­ing the dam­age

 

1A per­son claim­ing dam­ages must prove that dam­age oc­curred.

2Where the ex­act value of the dam­age can­not be quan­ti­fied, the court shall es­tim­ate the value at its dis­cre­tion in the light of the nor­mal course of events and the steps taken by the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age.

3The costs of treat­ing an­im­als kept as pets rather than for in­vest­ment or com­mer­cial pur­poses may be claimed with­in ap­pro­pri­ate lim­its as a loss even if they ex­ceed the value of the an­im­al.1


1 In­ser­ted by No II of the FA of 4 Oct. 2002 (An­im­als), in force since 1 April 2003 (AS 2003 463; BBl 2002 3885 5418).

Art. 43

III. De­term­in­ing com­pens­a­tion

 

1The court de­term­ines the form and ex­tent of the com­pens­a­tion provided for dam­age in­curred, with due re­gard to the cir­cum­stances and the de­gree of culp­ab­il­ity.

1bisWhere an an­im­al kept as a pet rather than for in­vest­ment or com­mer­cial pur­poses has been in­jured or killed, the court may take ap­pro­pri­ate ac­count of its sen­ti­ment­al value to its own­er or his de­pend­ants.1

2Where dam­ages are awar­ded in the form of peri­od­ic pay­ments, the debt­or must at the same time post se­cur­ity.


1 In­ser­ted by No II of the FA of 4 Oct. 2002 (An­im­als), in force since 1 April 2003 (AS 2003 463; BBl 2002 3885 5418).

Art. 44

IV. Grounds for re­du­cing com­pens­a­tion

 

1Where the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age con­sen­ted to the harm­ful act or cir­cum­stances at­trib­ut­able to him helped give rise to or com­pound the dam­age or oth­er­wise ex­acer­bated the po­s­i­tion of the party li­able for it, the court may re­duce the com­pens­a­tion due or even dis­pense with it en­tirely.

2The court may also re­duce the com­pens­a­tion award in cases in which the dam­age was caused neither wil­fully nor by gross neg­li­gence and where pay­ment of such com­pens­a­tion would leave the li­able party in fin­an­cial hard­ship.

Art. 45

V. Spe­cial cases

1. Hom­icide and per­son­al in­jury

a. Dam­ages for hom­icide

 

1In the event of hom­icide, com­pens­a­tion must cov­er all ex­penses arising and in par­tic­u­lar the fu­ner­al costs.

2Where death did not oc­cur im­me­di­ately, the com­pens­a­tion must also in­clude the costs of med­ic­al treat­ment and losses arising from in­ab­il­ity to work.

3Where oth­ers are de­prived of their means of sup­port as a res­ult of hom­icide, they must also be com­pensated for that loss.

Art. 46

b. Dam­ages for per­son­al in­jury

 

1In the event of per­son­al in­jury, the vic­tim is en­titled to re­im­burse­ment of ex­penses in­curred and to com­pens­a­tion for any total or par­tial in­ab­il­ity to work and for any loss of fu­ture earn­ings.

2Where the con­sequences of the per­son­al in­jury can­not be as­sessed with suf­fi­cient cer­tainty at the time the award is made, the court may re­serve the right to amend the award with­in two years of the date on which it was made.

Art. 47

c. Sat­is­fac­tion

 

In cases of hom­icide or per­son­al in­jury, the court may award the vic­tim of per­son­al in­jury or the de­pend­ants of the de­ceased an ap­pro­pri­ate sum by way of sat­is­fac­tion.

Art. 48

2. ...

 

1 Re­pealed by Art. 21 para. 1 of the FA of 30 Sept. 1943 on Un­fair Com­pet­i­tion, with ef­fect from 1 March 1945 (BS 2 951).

Art. 49

3. In­jury to per­son­al­ity rights

 

1Any per­son whose per­son­al­ity rights are un­law­fully in­fringed is en­titled to a sum of money by way of sat­is­fac­tion provided this is jus­ti­fied by the ser­i­ous­ness of the in­fringe­ment and no oth­er amends have been made.

2The court may or­der that sat­is­fac­tion be provided in an­oth­er man­ner in­stead of or in ad­di­tion to mon­et­ary com­pens­a­tion.


1 Amended by No II 1 of the FA of 16 Dec. 1983, in force since 1 Ju­ly 1985 (AS 1984 778; BBl 1982 II 661).

Art. 50

VI. Mul­tiple li­able parties

1. In tort

 

1Where two or more per­sons have to­geth­er caused dam­age, wheth­er as in­stig­at­or, per­pet­rat­or or ac­com­plice, they are jointly and sev­er­ally li­able to the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age.

2The court de­term­ines at its dis­cre­tion wheth­er and to what ex­tent they have right of re­course against each oth­er.

3Abet­tors are li­able in dam­ages only to the ex­tent that they re­ceived a share in the gains or caused dam­age due to their in­volve­ment.

Art. 51

2. On dif­fer­ent leg­al grounds

 

1Where two or more per­sons are li­able for the same dam­age on dif­fer­ent leg­al grounds, wheth­er un­der tort law, con­tract law or by stat­ute, the pro­vi­sion gov­ern­ing re­course among per­sons who have jointly caused dam­age is ap­plic­able mu­tatis mutandis.

2As a rule, com­pens­a­tion is provided first by those who are li­able in tort and last by those who are deemed li­able by stat­utory pro­vi­sion without be­ing at fault or in breach of con­trac­tu­al ob­lig­a­tion.

Art. 52

VII. Self-de­fence, ne­ces­sity, le­git­im­ate use of force

 

1Where a per­son has ac­ted in self-de­fence, he is not li­able to pay com­pens­a­tion for dam­age caused to the per­son or prop­erty of the ag­gressor.

2A per­son who dam­ages the prop­erty of an­oth­er in or­der to pro­tect him­self or an­oth­er per­son against im­min­ent dam­age or danger must pay dam­ages at the court’s dis­cre­tion.

3A per­son who uses force to pro­tect his rights is not li­able in dam­ages if in the cir­cum­stances the as­sist­ance of the au­thor­it­ies could not have been ob­tained in good time and such use of force was the only means of pre­vent­ing the loss of his rights or a sig­ni­fic­ant impair­ment of his abil­ity to ex­er­cise them.

Art. 53

VIII. Re­la­tion­ship with crim­in­al law

 

1When de­term­in­ing fault or lack of fault and ca­pa­city or in­ca­pa­city to con­sent, the court is not bound by the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing crim­in­al ca­pa­city nor by any ac­quit­tal in the crim­in­al court.

2The civil court is like­wise not bound by the ver­dict in the crim­in­al court when de­term­in­ing fault and as­sess­ing com­pens­a­tion.

Art. 54

B. Li­ab­il­ity of per­sons lack­ing ca­pa­city to con­sent

 

1On grounds of equity, the court may also or­der a per­son who lacks ca­pa­city to con­sent to provide total or par­tial com­pens­a­tion for the dam­age he has caused.

2A per­son who has tem­por­ar­ily lost his ca­pa­city to con­sent is li­able for any dam­age caused when in that state un­less he can prove that said state arose through no fault of his own.

Art. 55

C. Li­ab­il­ity of em­ploy­ers

 

1An em­ploy­er is li­able for the dam­age caused by his em­ploy­ees or an­cil­lary staff in the per­form­ance of their work un­less he proves that he took all due care to avoid a dam­age of this type or that the dam­age would have oc­curred even if all due care had been taken.1

2The em­ploy­er has a right of re­course against the per­son who caused the dam­age to the ex­tent that such per­son is li­able in dam­ages.


1 Amended by No II Art. 1 No 2 of the FA of 25 June 1971, in force since 1 Jan. 1972 (AS 1971 1465; BBl 1967 II 241). See also the Fi­nal and Trans­ition­al Pro­vi­sions of Title X, at the end of this Code.

Art. 56

D. Li­ab­il­ity for an­im­als

I. Dam­ages

 

1In the event of dam­age caused by an an­im­al, its keep­er is li­able un­less he proves that in keep­ing and su­per­vising the an­im­al he took all due care or that the dam­age would have oc­curred even if all due care had been taken.

2He has a right of re­course if the an­im­al was pro­voked either by an­oth­er per­son or by an an­im­al be­long­ing to an­oth­er per­son.

3...1


1 Re­pealed by Art. 27 No 3 of the FA of 20 June 1986 on Hunt­ing, with ef­fect from 1 April 1988 (AS 1988 506; BBl 1983 II 1197).

Art. 57

II. Seizure of an­im­als

 

1A per­son in pos­ses­sion of a plot of land is en­titled to seize an­im­als be­long­ing to an­oth­er which cause dam­age on that land and take them in­to his cus­tody as se­cur­ity for his claim for com­pens­a­tion or even to kill them, where jus­ti­fied by the cir­cum­stances.

2He non­ethe­less has an ob­lig­a­tion to no­ti­fy the own­er of such an­im­als without delay or, if the own­er is not known to him, to take the ne­ces­sary steps to trace the own­er.

Art. 58

E. Li­ab­il­ity of prop­erty own­ers

I. Dam­ages

 

1The own­er of a build­ing or any oth­er struc­ture is li­able for any dam­age caused by de­fects in its con­struc­tion or design or by in­ad­equate main­ten­ance.

2He has a right of re­course against per­sons li­able to him in this re­gard.

Art. 59

II. Safety meas­ures

 

1A per­son who is at risk of suf­fer­ing dam­age due to a build­ing or struc­ture be­long­ing to an­oth­er may in­sist that the own­er take the ne­ces­sary steps to avert the danger.

2Or­ders giv­en by the po­lice for the pro­tec­tion of per­sons and prop­erty are un­af­fected.

Art. 59a

F. Li­ab­il­ity in re­spect of cryp­to­graph­ic keys

 

1The own­er of a cryp­to­graph­ic key used to gen­er­ate elec­tron­ic sig­na­tures or seals is li­able to third parties for any dam­age they have suffered as a res­ult of re­ly­ing on a val­id cer­ti­fic­ate is­sued by a pro­vider of cer­ti­fic­a­tion ser­vices with­in the mean­ing of the Fed­er­al Act of 18 March 20162 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures.

2The own­er is ab­solved of li­ab­il­ity if he can sat­is­fy the court that he took all the se­cur­ity pre­cau­tions that could reas­on­ably be ex­pec­ted in the cir­cum­stances to pre­vent mis­use of the cryp­to­graph­ic key.

3The Fed­er­al Coun­cil defines the se­cur­ity pre­cau­tions to be taken pur­su­ant to para­graph 2.


1 In­ser­ted by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 19 Dec. 2003 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures (AS 2004 5085; BBl 2001 5679). Amended by An­nex No II 4 of the FA of 18 March 2016 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2016 4651; BBl 2014 1001).
2 SR 943.03

Art. 60

G. Pre­scrip­tion1

 

1The right to claim dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion pre­scribes three years from the date on which the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age be­came aware of the loss, dam­age or in­jury and of the iden­tity of the per­son li­able for it but in any event ten years after the date on which the harm­ful con­duct took place or ceased.2.

1bisIn cases death or in­jury, the right to claim dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion pre­scribes three years from the date on which the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age be­came aware of the dam­age and of the iden­tity of per­son li­able for it, but in any event twenty years after the date on which the harm­ful con­duct took place or ceased.3

2If the per­son li­able has com­mit­ted a crim­in­al of­fence through his or her harm­ful con­duct, then not­with­stand­ing the fore­go­ing para­graphs the right to dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion pre­scribes at the earli­est when the right to pro­sec­ute the of­fence be­comes time-barred. If the right to pro­sec­ute is no longer li­able to be­come time-barred be­cause a first in­stance crim­in­al judg­ment has been is­sued, the right to claim dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion pre­scribes at the earli­est three years after no­tice of the judg­ment is giv­en.4

3Where the tort has giv­en rise to a claim against the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age, he may re­fuse to sat­is­fy the claim even if his own claim in tort is time-barred.


1 Amended by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 19 Dec. 2003 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2005 (AS 2004 5085; BBl 2001 5679.03).
2 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
3 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
4 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 61

H. Li­ab­il­ity of civil ser­vants and pub­lic of­fi­cials1

 

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may by way of le­gis­la­tion en­act pro­vi­sions that de­vi­ate from those of this Sec­tion to gov­ern the li­ab­il­ity of civil ser­vants and pub­lic of­fi­cials to pay dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion for any dam­age they cause in the ex­er­cise of their du­ties.

2The pro­vi­sions of this Sec­tion may not, however, be mod­i­fied by can­ton­al le­gis­la­tion in the case of com­mer­cial du­ties per­formed by civil ser­vants or pub­lic of­fi­cials.


1 Amended by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 19 Dec. 2003 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2005 (AS 2004 5085; BBl 2001 5679).

Section Three: Obligations deriving from Unjust Enrichment

Art. 62

A. Re­quire­ment

I. In gen­er­al

 

1A per­son who has en­riched him­self without just cause at the ex­pense of an­oth­er is ob­liged to make resti­tu­tion.

2In par­tic­u­lar, resti­tu­tion is owed for money be­ne­fits ob­tained for no val­id reas­on what­so­ever, for a reas­on that did not tran­spire or for a reas­on that sub­sequently ceased to ex­ist.

Art. 63

II. Pay­ment in sat­is­fac­tion of a non-ex­ist­ent ob­lig­a­tion

 

1A per­son who has vol­un­tar­ily sat­is­fied a non-ex­ist­ent debt has a right to resti­tu­tion of the sum paid only if he can prove that he paid it in the er­ro­neous be­lief that the debt was owed.

2Resti­tu­tion is ex­cluded where pay­ment was made in sat­is­fac­tion of a debt that has pre­scribe or of a mor­al ob­lig­a­tion.

3The pro­vi­sions of fed­er­al debt col­lec­tion and bank­ruptcy law gov­ern­ing the right to the resti­tu­tion of pay­ments made in sat­is­fac­tion of non-ex­ist­ent claims are un­af­fected.

Art. 64

B. Scope of resti­tu­tion

I. Ob­lig­a­tions of the un­justly en­riched party

 

There is no right of resti­tu­tion where the re­cip­i­ent can show that he is no longer en­riched at the time the claim for resti­tu­tion is brought, un­less he ali­en­ated the money be­ne­fits in bad faith or in the cer­tain know­ledge that he would be bound to re­turn them.

Art. 65

II. Rights in re­spect of ex­pendit­ures

 

1The re­cip­i­ent is en­titled to re­im­burse­ment of ne­ces­sary and use­ful ex­pendit­ures, al­though where the un­just en­rich­ment was re­ceived in bad faith, the re­im­burse­ment of use­ful ex­pendit­ures must not ex­ceed the amount of ad­ded value as at the time of resti­tu­tion.

2He is not en­titled to any com­pens­a­tion for oth­er ex­pendit­ures, but where no such com­pens­a­tion is offered to him, he may, be­fore re­turn­ing the prop­erty, re­move any­thing he has ad­ded to it provided this is pos­sible without dam­aging it.

Art. 66

C. Ex­clu­sion of resti­tu­tion

 

No right to resti­tu­tion ex­ists in re­spect of any­thing giv­en with a view to pro­du­cing an un­law­ful or im­mor­al out­come.

Art. 67

D. Pre­scrip­tion

 

1The right to claim resti­tu­tion for un­just en­rich­ment pre­scribes three years after the date on which the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age learned of his or her claim and in any event ten years after the date on which the claim first arose.1

2Where the un­just en­rich­ment con­sists of a claim against the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age, he or she may re­fuse to sat­is­fy the claim even if his or her own claim for resti­tu­tion has pre­scribed.


1 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Title Two: Effect of Obligations

Section One: Performance of Obligations

Art. 68

A. Gen­er­al prin­ciples

I. Per­form­ance by the ob­lig­or in per­son

 

An ob­lig­or is not ob­liged to dis­charge his ob­lig­a­tion in per­son un­less so re­quired by the ob­li­gee.

Art. 69

II. Ob­ject of per­form­ance

1. Part pay­ment

 

1A cred­it­or may re­fuse par­tial pay­ment where the total debt is es­tab­lished and due.

2If the cred­it­or wishes to ac­cept part pay­ment, the debt­or may not re­fuse to settle the part of the debt that he ac­know­ledges is due.

Art. 70

2. In­di­vis­ible per­form­ance

 

1Where in­di­vis­ible per­form­ance is due to sev­er­al ob­li­gees, the ob­lig­or must make per­form­ance to all of them jointly, and each ob­li­gee may de­mand that per­form­ance be made to all of them jointly.

2Where in­di­vis­ible per­form­ance is due by sev­er­al ob­lig­ors, each of them has an ob­lig­a­tion to make per­form­ance in full.

3Un­less cir­cum­stances dic­tate oth­er­wise, an ob­lig­or who has sat­is­fied the ob­li­gee may then claim pro­por­tion­ate com­pens­a­tion from the oth­er ob­lig­ors and to that ex­tent the claim of the sat­is­fied ob­li­gee passes to him.

Art. 71

3. Debt of gen­er­ic ob­ject

 

1If the ob­ject owed is defined only in gen­er­ic terms, the ob­lig­or may choose what ob­ject is giv­en in re­pay­ment un­less oth­er­wise stip­u­lated un­der the leg­al re­la­tion­ship.

2However, the ob­lig­or must not of­fer an ob­ject of less-than-av­er­age qual­ity.

Art. 72

4. Ob­lig­a­tions in­volving choice of per­form­ance

 

Where an ob­lig­a­tion may be dis­charged by one of sev­er­al al­tern­at­ive types of per­form­ance, the ob­lig­or may choose which per­form­ance to make un­less oth­er­wise stip­u­lated un­der the leg­al re­la­tion­ship.

Art. 73

5. In­terest

 

1Where an ob­lig­a­tion in­volves the pay­ment of in­terest but the rate is not set by con­tract, law or cus­tom, in­terest is pay­able at the rate of 5% per an­num.

2Pub­lic law pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing ab­us­ive in­terest charges are not af­fected.

Art. 74

B. Place of per­form­ance

 

1The place of per­form­ance is de­term­ined by the in­ten­tion of the parties as stated ex­pressly or evid­ent from the cir­cum­stances.

2Ex­cept where oth­er­wise stip­u­lated, the fol­low­ing prin­ciples ap­ply:

1.
pe­cu­ni­ary debts must be paid at the place where the cred­it­or is res­id­ent at the time of per­form­ance;
2.
where a spe­cif­ic ob­ject is owed, it must be de­livered at the place where it was loc­ated when the con­tract was entered in­to;
3.
oth­er ob­lig­a­tions must be dis­charged at the place where the ob­lig­or was res­id­ent at the time they arose.

3Where the ob­li­gee may re­quire per­form­ance of an ob­lig­a­tion at his dom­i­cile but this has changed since the ob­lig­a­tion arose, thereby sig­ni­fic­antly hinder­ing per­form­ance by the ob­lig­or, the lat­ter is en­titled to render per­form­ance at the ori­gin­al dom­i­cile.

Art. 75

C. Time of per­form­ance

I. Open-ended ob­lig­a­tions

 

Where no time of per­form­ance is stated in the con­tract or evid­ent from the nature of the leg­al re­la­tion­ship, the ob­lig­a­tion may be dis­charged or called in im­me­di­ately.

Art. 76

II. Ob­lig­a­tions sub­ject to time lim­it

1. Monthly time lim­its

 

1A time lim­it ex­pressed as the be­gin­ning or end of a month means the first or last day of the month re­spect­ively.

2A time lim­it ex­pressed as the middle of the month means the fif­teenth day of that month.

Art. 77

2. Oth­er time lim­its

 

1Where an ob­lig­a­tion must be dis­charged or some oth­er trans­ac­tion ac­com­plished with­in a cer­tain time lim­it sub­sequent to con­clu­sion of the con­tract, the time lim­it is defined as fol­lows:

1.
where the time lim­it is ex­pressed as a num­ber of days, per­form­ance falls due on the last there­of, not in­clud­ing the date on which the con­tract was con­cluded, and where the num­ber stip­u­lated is eight or fif­teen days, this means not one or two weeks but a full eight or fif­teen days;
2.
where the time lim­it is ex­pressed as a num­ber of weeks, per­form­ance falls due in the last week of the peri­od on the same day of the week as the one on which the con­tract was con­cluded;
3.
where the time lim­it is ex­pressed as a num­ber of months or as a peri­od com­pris­ing sev­er­al months (a year, half-year or quarter), per­form­ance falls due in the last month of the peri­od on the same day of the month as the one on which the con­tract was con­cluded or, where the last month of the peri­od con­tains no such day, on the last day of that month.

The term ‘half-month’ has the same mean­ing as a time lim­it of fif­teen days; if the time lim­it is ex­pressed as a peri­od of one or more months plus one half-month, the fif­teen days are coun­ted last.

2Time lim­its are cal­cu­lated in the same man­ner when stip­u­lated as run­ning from a date oth­er than the date on which the con­tract was con­cluded.

3Where an ob­lig­a­tion must be dis­charged be­fore a spe­cified time lim­it, per­form­ance must oc­cur be­fore that time ex­pires.

Art. 78

3. Sundays and pub­lic hol­i­days

 

1Where the time of per­form­ance or the last day of a time lim­it falls on a Sunday or on a day of­fi­cially re­cog­nised as a pub­lic hol­i­day1 at the place of per­form­ance, the time of per­form­ance or the last day of a time lim­it is deemed to be the next work­ing day.

2Any agree­ment to the con­trary is un­af­fected.


1 In re­la­tion to the stat­utory time lim­its un­der fed­er­al law and the time lim­its fixed by au­thor­it­ies by vir­tue of fed­er­al law, Sat­urday is now re­garded as equi­val­ent to a pub­lic hol­i­day (Art. 1 of the FA of 21 June 1963 on the Ap­plic­a­tion of Lim­it­a­tion Peri­ods to Sat­urdays; SR 173.110.3).

Art. 79

III. Per­form­ance dur­ing busi­ness hours

 

Per­form­ance of the ob­lig­a­tion must be made and ac­cep­ted dur­ing nor­mal busi­ness hours on the date stip­u­lated.

Art. 80

IV. Ex­ten­sion of the time lim­it

 

Where the agreed time lim­it for per­form­ance is ex­ten­ded, in the ab­sence of an agree­ment to the con­trary, the new time lim­it runs from the first day fol­low­ing ex­piry of the pre­vi­ous time lim­it.

Art. 81

V. Early per­form­ance

 

1Un­less the terms or nature of the con­tract or the cir­cum­stances in­dic­ate that the parties in­ten­ded oth­er­wise, per­form­ance may be rendered be­fore the date on which the time lim­it ex­pires.

2However, the ob­lig­or is not en­titled to ap­ply a dis­count un­less that dis­count has been agreed or is sanc­tioned by cus­tom.

Art. 82

VI. In bi­lat­er­al con­tracts

1. Or­der of per­form­ance

 

A party to a bi­lat­er­al con­tract may not de­mand per­form­ance un­til he has dis­charged or offered to dis­charge his own ob­lig­a­tion, un­less the terms or nature of the con­tract al­low him to do so at a later date.

Art. 83

2. Al­low­ance for uni­lat­er­al in­solv­ency

 

1Where one party to a bi­lat­er­al con­tract has be­come in­solv­ent, in par­tic­u­lar by vir­tue of bank­ruptcy pro­ceed­ings or ex­e­cu­tion without sat­is­fac­tion, and this de­teri­or­a­tion in its fin­an­cial po­s­i­tion jeop­ard­ises the claim of the oth­er party, the lat­ter may with­hold per­form­ance un­til se­cur­ity has been provided for the con­sid­er­a­tion.

2He may with­draw from the con­tract if, on re­quest, no such se­cur­ity is provided with­in a reas­on­able time.

Art. 84

D. Pay­ment

I. Na­tion­al cur­rency

 

1Pe­cu­ni­ary debts must be dis­charged in leg­al tender of the cur­rency in which the debt was in­curred.

2A debt ex­pressed in a cur­rency oth­er than the na­tion­al cur­rency of the place of pay­ment may be dis­charged in that na­tion­al cur­rency at the rate of ex­change that ap­plies on the day it falls due, un­less lit­er­al per­form­ance is re­quired by in­clu­sion in the con­tract of the ex­pres­sion ‘ac­tu­al cur­rency’ or words to that ef­fect.


1 Amended by An­nex No 2 to the FA of 22 Dec. 1999 on Cur­rency and Pay­ment In­stru­ments, in force since 1 May 2000 (AS 2002 1144; BBl 1999 7258).

Art. 85

II. Al­loc­a­tion

1. Of part pay­ments

 

1A debt­or may off­set a part pay­ment against the debt prin­cip­al only if he is not in ar­rears with in­terest pay­ments and ex­penses.

2Where a cred­it­or has re­ceived guar­an­tees, pledges or oth­er se­cur­ity for a por­tion of his claim, the debt­or may not off­set a part pay­ment against that por­tion in pref­er­ence to less well se­cured por­tions of the claim.

Art. 86

2. In the case of mul­tiple debts

a. At the dis­cre­tion of debt­or or cred­it­or

 

1A debt­or with sev­er­al debts to the same cred­it­or is en­titled to state at the time of pay­ment which debt he means to re­deem.

2In the ab­sence of any state­ment from the debt­or, the pay­ment will be al­loc­ated to the debt in­dic­ated by the cred­it­or in his re­ceipt, un­less the debt­or ob­jects im­me­di­ately.

Art. 87

b. By law

 

1Where no val­id debt re­demp­tion state­ment has been made and the re­ceipt does not in­dic­ate how the pay­ment has been al­loc­ated, it is al­loc­ated to whichever debt is due or, if sev­er­al are due, to the debt that first gave rise to en­force­ment pro­ceed­ings against the debt­or or, in the ab­sence of such pro­ceed­ings, to the debt that fell due first.

2Where sev­er­al debts fell due at the same time, the pay­ment is off­set against them pro­por­tion­ately.

3If none of the debts is yet due, the pay­ment is al­loc­ated to the one of­fer­ing the least se­cur­ity for the cred­it­or.

Art. 88

III. Re­ceipt and re­turn of bor­row­er’s note

1. Right of the debt­or

 

1A debt­or mak­ing a pay­ment is en­titled to de­mand a re­ceipt and, provided the debt is fully re­deemed, the re­turn or an­nul­ment of the bor­row­er’s note.

2If the debt is not com­pletely re­deemed or the bor­row­er’s note con­fers oth­er rights on the cred­it­or, the debt­or is en­titled to de­mand only a re­ceipt and that a re­cord of the pay­ment be entered on the bor­row­er’s note.

Art. 89

2. Ef­fect

 

1Where in­terest or oth­er peri­od­ic pay­ments are due, a cred­it­or un­re­servedly is­su­ing a re­ceipt for a later peri­od­ic pay­ment is pre­sumed to have re­ceived all pre­vi­ous peri­od­ic pay­ments.

2If he is­sues a re­ceipt for re­demp­tion of the debt prin­cip­al, he is pre­sumed to have re­ceived the in­terest.

3The re­turn of the bor­row­er’s note to the debt­or gives rise to a pre­sump­tion that the debt has been re­deemed.

Art. 90

3. Re­turn of bor­row­er’s note not pos­sible

 

1If the cred­it­or claims to have lost the bor­row­er’s note, on re­deem­ing the debt, the debt­or may in­sist that the cred­it­or de­clare by pub­lic deed or not­ar­ised doc­u­ment that the bor­row­er’s note has been an­nulled and the debt re­deemed.

2The pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing an­nul­ment of se­cur­it­ies are re­served.

Art. 91

E. De­fault of ob­li­gee

I. Re­quire­ment

 

The ob­li­gee is in de­fault if he re­fuses without good cause to ac­cept per­form­ance prop­erly offered to him or to carry out such pre­par­a­tions as he is ob­liged to make and without which the ob­lig­or can­not render per­form­ance.

Art. 92

II. Ef­fect

1. On ob­lig­a­tions re­lat­ing to ob­jects

a. Right to de­pos­it ob­ject

 

1Where the ob­li­gee is in de­fault, the ob­lig­or is en­titled to de­pos­it the ob­ject at the ex­pense and risk of the ob­li­gee, thereby dis­char­ging his ob­lig­a­tion.

2The court de­cides which place should serve as de­pos­it­ary; however, mer­chand­ise may be de­pos­ited in a ware­house without need for a court de­cision.1


1 Amended by An­nex No 5 to the Civil Jur­is­dic­tion Act of 24 March 2000, in force since 1 Jan. 2001 (AS 2000 2355; BBl 1999 2829).

Art. 93

b. Right to sell

 

1Where the char­ac­ter­ist­ics of the ob­ject or the nature of the busi­ness pre­clude a de­pos­it or the ob­ject is per­ish­able or gives rise to main­ten­ance costs or sub­stan­tial stor­age costs, after hav­ing giv­en form­al warn­ing to the ob­li­gee and with the court’s per­mis­sion, the ob­lig­or may dis­pose of the ob­ject by open sale and de­pos­it the sale pro­ceeds.

2Where the ob­ject has a quoted stock ex­change or mar­ket price or its value is low in pro­por­tion to the costs in­volved, the sale need not be open and the court may au­thor­ise it without pri­or warn­ing.

Art. 94

c. Right to take back the ob­ject

 

1The ob­lig­or is en­titled to take back the ob­ject de­pos­ited provid­ing the ob­li­gee has not de­clared that he ac­cepts it or provid­ing the de­pos­it has not had the ef­fect of re­deem­ing a pledge.

2As soon as the ob­ject is taken back, the claim and all ac­cess­ory rights be­come ef­fect­ive again.

Art. 95

2. On oth­er ob­lig­a­tions

 

Where the ob­lig­a­tion does not re­late to ob­jects and the ob­li­gee is in de­fault, the ob­lig­or may with­draw from the con­tract in ac­cord­ance with the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing de­fault of the ob­lig­or.

Art. 96

F. Per­form­ance pre­ven­ted for oth­er reas­ons

 

The ob­lig­or is en­titled to de­pos­it his per­form­ance or to with­draw from the con­tract, as in the case of de­fault on the part of the ob­li­gee, where per­form­ance can­not be rendered either to the ob­li­gee or to his rep­res­ent­at­ive for some oth­er reas­on per­tain­ing to the ob­li­gee or where through no fault of the ob­lig­or there is un­cer­tainty as to the iden­tity of the ob­li­gee.

Section Two: The Consequences of Non-Performance of Obligations

Art. 97

A. Fail­ure to per­form

I. Ob­lig­or’s duty to com­pensate

1. In gen­er­al

 

1An ob­lig­or who fails to dis­charge an ob­lig­a­tion at all or as re­quired must make amends for the res­ult­ing dam­age un­less he can prove that he was not at fault.

2The pro­ced­ure for debt en­force­ment is gov­erned by the pro­vi­sions of the Fed­er­al Act of 11 April 18891 on Debt Col­lec­tion and Bank­ruptcy and the Civil Pro­ced­ure Code of 19 Decem­ber 20082 (CPC).3


1 SR 281.1
2 SR 272
3 Amended by An­nex 1 No II 5 of the Civil Pro­ced­ure Code of 19 Dec. 2008, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 1739; BBl 2006 7221).

Art. 98

2. Ob­lig­a­tion to act or re­frain from ac­tion

 

1Where the ob­lig­a­tion is to take cer­tain ac­tion, the ob­li­gee may without pre­ju­dice to his claims for dam­ages ob­tain au­thor­ity to per­form the ob­lig­a­tion at the ob­lig­or’s ex­pense.

2Where the ob­lig­a­tion is to re­frain from tak­ing cer­tain ac­tion, any breach of such ob­lig­a­tion renders the ob­lig­or li­able to make amends for the dam­age caused.

3In ad­di­tion, the ob­li­gee may re­quest that the situ­ation con­sti­tut­ing a breach of the ob­lig­a­tion be rec­ti­fied and may ob­tain au­thor­ity to rec­ti­fy it at the ob­lig­or’s ex­pense.

Art. 99

II. Scope of li­ab­il­ity and com­pens­a­tion

1. In gen­er­al

 

1The ob­lig­or is gen­er­ally li­able for any fault at­trib­ut­able to him.

2The scope of such li­ab­il­ity is de­term­ined by the par­tic­u­lar nature of the trans­ac­tion and in par­tic­u­lar is judged more le­ni­ently where the ob­lig­or does not stand to gain from the trans­ac­tion.

3In oth­er re­spects, the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing li­ab­il­ity in tort ap­ply mu­tatis mutandis to a breach of con­tract.

Art. 100

2. Ex­clu­sion of li­ab­il­ity

 

1Any agree­ment pur­port­ing to ex­clude li­ab­il­ity for un­law­ful in­tent or gross neg­li­gence in ad­vance is void.

2At the dis­cre­tion of the court, an ad­vance ex­clu­sion of li­ab­il­ity for minor neg­li­gence may be deemed void provided the party ex­clud­ing li­ab­il­ity was in the oth­er party’s ser­vice at the time the waiver was made or the li­ab­il­ity arises in con­nec­tion with com­mer­cial activ­it­ies con­duc­ted un­der of­fi­cial li­cence.

3The spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing in­sur­ance policies are un­af­fected.

Art. 101

3. Li­ab­il­ity for as­so­ci­ates

 

1A per­son who del­eg­ates the per­form­ance of an ob­lig­a­tion or the ex­er­cise of a right arising from a con­trac­tu­al ob­lig­a­tion to an as­so­ci­ate, such as a mem­ber of his house­hold or an em­ploy­ee is li­able to the oth­er party for any dam­age the as­so­ci­ate causes in car­ry­ing out such tasks, even if their del­eg­a­tion was en­tirely au­thor­ised.1

2This li­ab­il­ity may be lim­ited or ex­cluded by pri­or agree­ment.

3If the ob­li­gee is in the ob­lig­or’s ser­vice or if the li­ab­il­ity arises in con­nec­tion with com­mer­cial activ­it­ies con­duc­ted un­der of­fi­cial li­cence, any ex­clu­sion of li­ab­il­ity by agree­ment may ap­ply at most to minor neg­li­gence.


1 Amended by No II Art. 1 No 3 of the FA of 25 June 1971, in force since 1 Jan. 1972 (AS 1971 1465; BBl 1967 II 241). See also the Fi­nal and Trans­ition­al Pro­vi­sions of Title X, at the end of this Code.

Art. 102

B. De­fault of ob­lig­or

I. Re­quire­ment

 

1Where an ob­lig­a­tion is due, the ob­lig­or is in de­fault as soon as he re­ceives a form­al re­mind­er from the ob­li­gee.

2Where a dead­line for per­form­ance of the ob­lig­a­tion has been set by agree­ment or as a res­ult of a duly ex­er­cised right of ter­min­a­tion re­served by one party, the ob­lig­or is auto­mat­ic­ally in de­fault on ex­piry of the dead­line.

Art. 103

II. Ef­fect

1. Li­ab­il­ity for ac­ci­dent­al dam­age

 

1An ob­lig­or in de­fault is li­able in dam­ages for late per­form­ance and even for ac­ci­dent­al dam­age.

2He may dis­charge him­self from such li­ab­il­ity by prov­ing that his de­fault oc­curred through no fault of his own or that the ob­ject of per­form­ance would have suffered the ac­ci­dent­al dam­age to the det­ri­ment of the ob­li­gee even if per­form­ance had taken place promptly.

Art. 104

2. De­fault in­terest

a. In gen­er­al

 

1A debt­or in de­fault on pay­ment of a pe­cu­ni­ary debt must pay de­fault in­terest of 5% per an­num even where a lower rate of in­terest was stip­u­lated by con­tract.

2Where the con­tract en­vis­ages a rate of in­terest high­er than 5%, wheth­er dir­ectly or by agree­ment of a peri­od­ic bank com­mis­sion, such high­er rate of in­terest may also be ap­plied while the debt­or re­mains in de­fault.

3In busi­ness deal­ings, where the nor­mal bank dis­count rate at the place of pay­ment is high­er than 5%, de­fault in­terest may be cal­cu­lated at the high­er rate.

Art. 105

b. Debt­or in de­fault on pay­ments of in­terest, an­nu­it­ies and gifts

 

1A debt­or in de­fault on pay­ment of in­terest, an­nu­it­ies or gifts is li­able for de­fault in­terest only as of the day on which en­force­ment pro­ceed­ings are ini­ti­ated or leg­al ac­tion is brought.

2Any agree­ment to the con­trary is as­sessed by the court in ac­cord­ance with the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing pen­alty clauses.

3De­fault in­terest is nev­er pay­able on de­fault in­terest.

Art. 106

3. Ex­cess dam­age

 

1Where the value of the dam­age suffered by the cred­it­or ex­ceeds the de­fault in­terest, the debt­or is li­able also for this ad­di­tion­al dam­age un­less he can prove that he is not at fault.

2Where the ad­di­tion­al dam­age can be an­ti­cip­ated, the court may award com­pens­a­tion for such dam­age in its judg­ment on the main claim.

Art. 107

4. With­draw­al and dam­ages

a. Sub­ject to time lim­it

 

1Where the ob­lig­or un­der a bi­lat­er­al con­tract is in de­fault, the ob­li­gee is en­titled to set an ap­pro­pri­ate time lim­it for sub­sequent per­form­ance or to ask the court to set such time lim­it.

2If per­form­ance has not been rendered by the end of that time lim­it, the ob­li­gee may com­pel per­form­ance in ad­di­tion to su­ing for dam­ages in con­nec­tion with the delay or, provided he makes an im­me­di­ate de­clar­a­tion to this ef­fect, he may in­stead fore­go sub­sequent per­form­ance and either claim dam­ages for non-per­form­ance or with­draw from the con­tract al­to­geth­er.

Art. 108

b. Without time lim­it

 

No time lim­it need be set:

1.
where it is evid­ent from the con­duct of the ob­lig­or that a time lim­it would serve no pur­pose;
2.
where per­form­ance has be­come point­less to the ob­li­gee as a res­ult of the ob­lig­or’s de­fault;
3.
where the con­tract makes it clear that the parties in­ten­ded that per­form­ance take place at or be­fore a pre­cise point in time.

Art. 109

c. Ef­fect of with­draw­al

 

1An ob­li­gee with­draw­ing from a con­tract may re­fuse the prom­ised con­sid­er­a­tion and de­mand the re­turn of any per­form­ance already made.

2In ad­di­tion he may claim dam­ages for the lapse of the con­tract, un­less the ob­lig­or can prove that he was not at fault.

Section Three: Obligations involving Third Parties

Art. 110

A. Sub­rog­a­tion

 

A third party who sat­is­fies the cred­it­or is by op­er­a­tion of law sub­rog­ated to his rights:

1.
if he re­deems an ob­ject giv­en in pledge for the debt of an­oth­er and he owns said ob­ject or has a lim­ited right in rem in it;
2.
if the debt­or no­ti­fies the cred­it­or that the third party who is pay­ing is to take the cred­it­or’s place.

Art. 111

B. Guar­an­tee of per­form­ance by third party

 

A per­son who gives an un­der­tak­ing to en­sure that a third party per­forms an ob­lig­a­tion is li­able in dam­ages for non-per­form­ance by said third party.

Art. 112

C. Con­tracts con­fer­ring rights on third parties

I. In gen­er­al

 

1A per­son who, act­ing in his own name, has entered in­to a con­tract whereby per­form­ance is due to a third party is en­titled to com­pel per­form­ance for the be­ne­fit of said third party.

2 The third party or his leg­al suc­cessors have the right to com­pel per­form­ance where that was the in­ten­tion of the con­tract­ing parties or is the cus­tom­ary prac­tice.

3In this case the ob­li­gee may no longer re­lease the ob­lig­or from his ob­lig­a­tions once the third party has no­ti­fied the ob­lig­or of his in­ten­tion to ex­er­cise that right.

Art. 113

II. In the case of li­ab­il­ity in­sur­ance

 

Where an em­ploy­er has taken out li­ab­il­ity in­sur­ance and his em­ploy­ee has con­trib­uted at least half of the premi­ums, the em­ploy­ee has sole claim to the policy be­ne­fits.

Title Three: Extinction of Obligations

Art. 114

A. Ex­tinc­tion of ac­cess­ory rights

 

1Where a claim ceases to ex­ist by vir­tue of be­ing sat­is­fied or in some oth­er man­ner, all ac­cess­ory rights such as guar­an­tees and charges are like­wise ex­tin­guished.

2In­terest that has ac­crued may be re­claimed only if that right is con­ferred on the ob­li­gee by the con­tract or is evid­ent from the cir­cum­stances.

3The spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing charges on im­mov­able prop­erty, se­cur­it­ies and com­pos­i­tion agree­ments are un­af­fected.

Art. 115

B. Ex­tinc­tion by agree­ment

 

No par­tic­u­lar form is re­quired for the ex­tinc­tion of a claim by agree­ment even where the ob­lig­a­tion it­self could not be as­sumed without sat­is­fy­ing cer­tain form­al re­quire­ments re­quired by law or elec­ted by the parties.

Art. 116

C. Nova­tion

I. In gen­er­al

 

1Where a new debt re­la­tion­ship is con­trac­ted, there is no pre­sump­tion of nova­tion in re­spect of an old one.

2In par­tic­u­lar, in the ab­sence of agree­ment to the con­trary, nova­tion does not res­ult from sig­na­ture of a bill of ex­change in re­spect of an ex­ist­ing debt or from the is­sue of a new bor­row­er’s note or con­tract of surety.

Art. 117

II. In re­la­tion to cur­rent ac­counts

 

1The mere post­ing of in­di­vidu­al entries in a cur­rent ac­count does not res­ult in nova­tion.

2However, there is a pre­sump­tion of nova­tion if the bal­ance on the ac­count has been drawn and ac­know­ledged.

3Where spe­cial se­cur­ity ex­ists for one of the ac­count entries, un­less oth­er­wise agreed, such se­cur­ity is re­tained even if the bal­ance on the ac­count is drawn and ac­know­ledged.

Art. 118

D. Mer­ger

 

1An ob­lig­a­tion is deemed ex­tin­guished by mer­ger where the ca­pa­cit­ies of cred­it­or and debt­or are united in the same en­tity.

2In the event of de-mer­ger, the ob­lig­a­tion is re­vived.

3The spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing charges on im­mov­able prop­erty and se­cur­it­ies are un­af­fected.

Art. 119

E. Per­form­ance be­comes im­possible

 

1An ob­lig­a­tion is deemed ex­tin­guished where its per­form­ance is made im­possible by cir­cum­stances not at­trib­ut­able to the ob­lig­or.

2In a bi­lat­er­al con­tract, the ob­lig­or thus re­leased is li­able for the con­sid­er­a­tion already re­ceived pur­su­ant to the pro­vi­sions on un­just en­rich­ment and loses his counter-claim to the ex­tent it has not yet been sat­is­fied.

3This does not ap­ply to cases in which, by law or con­trac­tu­al agree­ment, the risk passes to the ob­li­gee pri­or to per­form­ance.

Art. 120

F. Set-off

I. Re­quire­ment

1. In gen­er­al

 

1Where two per­sons owe each oth­er sums of money or per­form­ance of identic­al ob­lig­a­tions, and provided that both claims have fallen due, each party may set off his debt against his claim.

2The debt­or may as­sert his right of set-off even if the coun­ter­vail­ing claim is con­tested.

3A time-barred claim may be set off provided that it was not time-barred at the time it be­came eli­gible for set-off.

Art. 121

2. Un­der surety

 

A surety may re­fuse to sat­is­fy the cred­it­or to the ex­tent that the prin­cip­al debt­or has a right of set-off.

Art. 122

3. In con­tracts con­fer­ring rights on third parties

 

A per­son who has un­der­taken an ob­lig­a­tion in fa­vour of a third party may not set off that ob­lig­a­tion against his own claims against said party.

Art. 123

4. Where the debt­or is bank­rupt

 

1Where the debt­or is bank­rupt, his cred­it­ors may set off their claims, even if they are not due, against the claims that the ad­ju­dic­ated bank­rupt holds against them.

2The ex­clu­sion or chal­lenge of set-off in the event of the debt­or’s bank­ruptcy is gov­erned by the pro­vi­sions of debt col­lec­tion and bank­ruptcy law.

Art. 124

II. Ef­fect of set—off

 

1A set-off takes place only if the debt­or no­ti­fies the cred­it­or of his in­ten­tion to ex­er­cise his right of set-off.

2Once this has oc­curred, to the ex­tent that they can­cel each oth­er out, the claim and coun­ter­vail­ing claim are deemed to have been sat­is­fied as of the time they first be­came sus­cept­ible to set-off.

3The spe­cial cus­toms re­lat­ing to com­mer­cial cur­rent ac­counts are un­af­fected.

Art. 125

III. Ex­cep­tions

 

The fol­low­ing ob­lig­a­tions may not be dis­charged by set-off ex­cept with the cred­it­or’s con­sent:

1.
ob­lig­a­tions to re­store or re­place ob­jects that have been de­pos­ited, un­law­fully re­moved or re­tained in bad faith;
2.
ob­lig­a­tions that by their very nature re­quire ac­tu­al per­form­ance to be rendered to the cred­it­or, such as main­ten­ance claims and salary pay­ments that are ab­so­lutely ne­ces­sary for the up­keep of the cred­it­or and his fam­ily;
3.
ob­lig­a­tions un­der pub­lic law in fa­vour of the state au­thor­it­ies.

Art. 126

IV. Waiver

 

The debt­or may waive his right of set-off in ad­vance.

Art. 127

G. Pre­scrip­tion

I. Peri­ods

1. Ten years

 

All claims pre­scribe after ten years un­less oth­er­wise provided by fed­er­al civil law.

Art. 128

2. Five years

 

The fol­low­ing pre­scribe after five years:

1.
claims for ag­ri­cul­tur­al and com­mer­cial rent and oth­er rent, in­terest on cap­it­al and all oth­er peri­od­ic pay­ments;
2.
claims in con­nec­tion with de­liv­ery of food­stuffs, pay­ments for board and lodging and hotel ex­penses;
3.1
claims in con­nec­tion with work car­ried out by trades­men and crafts­men, pur­chases of re­tail goods, med­ic­al treat­ment, pro­fes­sion­al ser­vices provided by ad­voc­ates, so­li­cit­ors, leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ives and not­ar­ies, and work per­formed by em­ploy­ees for their em­ploy­ers.

1 Amended by No II Art. 1 No 4 of the FA of 25 June 1971, in force since 1 Jan. 1972 (AS 1971 1465; BBl 1967 II 241). See also the Fi­nal and Trans­ition­al Pro­vi­sions of Title X, at the end of this Code.

Art. 128a

2a. Twenty years

 
Claims for dam­ages or sat­is­fac­tion arising from an in­jury or death in breach of con­tract pre­scribe three years from the date on which the per­son suf­fer­ing dam­age be­came aware of the dam­age, but in any event twenty years after the date on which the harm­ful con­duct took place or ceased.

1 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 129

3. Man­dat­ory pre­script­ive peri­ods

 

The pre­script­ive peri­ods laid down un­der this Title may not be altered by con­tract.

Art. 130

4. Start of pre­script­ive peri­od

a. In gen­er­al

 

1The pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences as soon as the debt is due.

2Where a debt falls due on no­ti­fic­a­tion, the pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences on the first date on which such no­tice is ad­miss­ible.

Art. 131

b. For peri­od­ic ob­lig­a­tions

 

1In the case of life an­nu­it­ies and sim­il­ar peri­od­ic ob­lig­a­tions, the pre­script­ive peri­od for the prin­cip­al claim com­mences on the date on which the first in­stal­ment in ar­rears was due.

2When the prin­cip­al claim pre­scribes, so too do all claims in re­spect of in­di­vidu­al pay­ments.

Art. 132

5. Com­pu­ta­tion of pre­script­ive peri­ods

 

1When com­put­ing pre­script­ive peri­ods, the date on which the pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences is not in­cluded and the peri­od is not deemed to have ex­pired un­til the end of its last day.

2In oth­er re­spects the pro­vi­sions gov­ern­ing com­pu­ta­tion of time lim­its for per­form­ance also ap­ply to pre­scrip­tion.

Art. 133

II. Ef­fect on ac­cess­ory claims

 

When the prin­cip­al claim pre­scribes, so too do all claims for in­terest and oth­er ac­cess­ory claims.

Art. 134

III. Pre­ven­tion and sus­pen­sion of the pre­script­ive peri­od

 

1The pre­script­ive peri­od does not com­mence and, if it has be­gun, is sus­pen­ded:

1.1
in re­spect of the claims of chil­dren against their par­ents, un­til the chil­dren reach the age of ma­jor­ity;
2.2
in re­spect of the claim of per­son lack­ing ca­pa­city of judge­ment against his or her carer, for the dur­a­tion of the ad­vance care dir­ect­ive;
3.
in re­spect of the claims of spouses against each oth­er, for the dur­a­tion of the mar­riage;
3bis.3
in re­spect of the claims of re­gistered part­ners against each oth­er, for the dur­a­tion of the re­gistered part­ner­ship;
4.4
in re­spect of the claim of an em­ploy­ee against his em­ploy­er with whom he shares a house­hold, for the dur­a­tion of the em­ploy­ment re­la­tion­ship;
5.
for as long as the debt­or has the usu­fruct of the claim;
6.5
for as long as the claim can­not be brought be­fore a court for ob­ject­ive reas­ons:
7.6
for claims made by or against a test­at­or, for the dur­a­tion of the pub­lic in­vent­ory pro­ced­ure;
8.7
for the dur­a­tion of set­tle­ment talks, me­di­ation pro­ceed­ings or any oth­er ex­tra-ju­di­cial dis­pute res­ol­u­tion pro­ced­ure, provided the parties agree there­on in writ­ing.

2The pre­script­ive peri­od be­gins or re­sumes at the end of the day on which the cause of pre­ven­tion or sus­pen­sion ceases to ap­ply.

3The spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions of debt col­lec­tion and bank­ruptcy law are un­af­fected.


1 Amended by An­nex No 1 to the FA of 20 March 2015 (Child Main­ten­ance), in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2015 4299; BBl 2014 529).
2 Amended by An­nex No 10 of the FA of 19 Dec. 2008 (Adult Pro­tec­tion, Law of Per­sons and Law of Chil­dren), in force since 1 Jan. 2013 (AS 2011 725; BBl 2006 7001).
3 In­ser­ted by An­nex No 11 to the AS 2005 5097; BBl 2004 4955 4965 of 18 June 2004, in force since 1 Jan. 2007 (AS 2005 5685; BBl 2003 1288).
4 Amended by No II Art. 1 No 5 of the FA of 25 June 1971, in force since 1 Jan. 1972 (AS 1971 1465; BBl 1967 II 241). See also the Fi­nal and Trans­ition­al Pro­vi­sions of Title X, at the end of this Code.
5 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
6 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
7 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 135

IV. In­ter­rup­tion of pre­script­ive peri­od

1. Grounds for in­ter­rup­tion

 

The pre­script­ive peri­od is in­ter­rup­ted:

1.
if the debt­or ac­know­ledges the claim and in par­tic­u­lar if he makes in­terest pay­ments or part pay­ments, gives an item in pledge or provides surety;
2.1
by debt en­force­ment pro­ceed­ings, an ap­plic­a­tion for con­cili­ation, sub­mis­sion of a state­ment of claim or de­fence to a court or ar­bit­ral tribunal, or a pe­ti­tion for bank­ruptcy.

1 Amended by An­nex 1 No II 5 of the Civil Pro­ced­ure Code of 19 Dec. 2008, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 1739; BBl 2006 7221).

Art. 136

2. Ef­fect of in­ter­rup­tion on co-ob­lig­ors

 

1Where the pre­script­ive peri­od for one per­son who is jointly and sev­er­ally li­able for a debt or jointly li­able for in­di­vis­ible per­form­ance is in­ter­rup­ted, it is like­wise in­ter­rup­ted for all oth­er co-ob­lig­ors, provided the in­ter­rup­tion is due to an act by the cred­it­or.

2Where the pre­script­ive peri­od for the prin­cip­al debt­or is in­ter­rup­ted, it is like­wise in­ter­rup­ted for the surety, provided the in­ter­rup­tion is due to an act by the cred­it­or.

3However, where the pre­script­ive peri­od for the guar­ant­or is in­ter­rup­ted, it is not in­ter­rup­ted for the prin­cip­al debt­or.

4An in­ter­rup­tion ef­fect­ive against an in­surer is also ef­fect­ive against the debt­or and vice-versa, provided there is a dir­ect claim against the in­surer.


1 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 137

3. Start of new pre­script­ive peri­od

a. In the event of ac­know­ledg­ment or judg­ment

 

1A new pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences as of the date of the in­ter­rup­tion.

2If the claim has been ac­know­ledged by pub­lic deed or con­firmed by court judg­ment, the new pre­script­ive peri­od is al­ways ten years.

Art. 138

b. By ac­tion of the cred­it­or

 

1Where the pre­script­ive peri­od has been in­ter­rup­ted by an ap­plic­a­tion for con­cili­ation, or the sub­mis­sion of a state­ment of claim or de­fence, a new pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences when the dis­pute is settled be­fore the rel­ev­ant court.1

2Where the pre­script­ive peri­od has been in­ter­rup­ted by debt en­force­ment pro­ceed­ings, a new pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences as of each step taken in the pro­ceed­ings.

3Where the pre­script­ive peri­od has been in­ter­rup­ted by a pe­ti­tion for bank­ruptcy, a new pre­script­ive peri­od com­mences as of the time spe­cified by bank­ruptcy law at which it once again be­comes pos­sible to as­sert the claim.


1 Amended by An­nex 1 No II 5 of the Civil Pro­ced­ure Code of 19 Dec. 2008, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 1739; BBl 2006 7221).

Art. 139

V. Pre­scrip­tion of the right of re­course

 

Where two or more debt­ors are jointly and sev­er­ally li­able, the right of re­course of each debt­or who has sat­is­fied the cred­it­or pre­scribes three years from date on which he sat­is­fies the cred­it­or and is aware of his co-debt­ors.


1 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 140

VI. Pre­scrip­tion of a charge on chat­tels

 

The ex­ist­ence of a charge on chat­tels does not pre­vent the pre­scrip­tion of a claim, al­though the fact of its pre­scrip­tion does not pre­vent the cred­it­or from as­sert­ing his right un­der the charge.

Art. 141

VII. Waiver of the pre­scrip­tion de­fence 1

 

1The debt­or may waive the right to ob­ject on the grounds of pre­scrip­tion, in each case for a max­im­um of ten years from the start of the pre­script­ive peri­od.2

1bisThe waiver must be made in writ­ing. Only the user of gen­er­al terms and con­di­tions of busi­ness may waive the de­fence of pre­scrip­tion in such terms and con­di­tions.3

2A waiver gran­ted by a joint and sev­er­al debt­or does not bind the oth­er joint and sev­er­al debt­ors.

3The same ap­plies to co-ob­lig­ors of an in­di­vis­ible debt and to the surety in the event of waiver by the prin­cip­al debt­or.

4A waiver gran­ted by a debt­or shall bind the debt­or’s in­surers and vice-versa, provided a dir­ect claim ex­ists against the in­surer.4


1 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
2 Amended by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
3 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).
4 In­ser­ted by No I of the FA of 15 June 2018 (Re­vi­sion of the Law on Pre­scrip­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2020 (AS 2018 5343; BBl 2014 235).

Art. 142

VIII. Ap­plic­a­tion

 

A court may not ap­ply the pre­script­ive de­fence of its own ac­cord.

Title Four: Special Relationships relating to Obligations

A:
AHVG Bundesgesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AHVV Verordnung über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AIG Bundesgesetz über die Ausländerinnen und Ausländer und über die Integration
AVIG Bundesgesetz über die obligatorische Arbeitslosenversicherung und die Insolvenzentschädigung
AVO Verordnung über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AVO-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AdoV Verordnung über die Adoption
ArG Bundesgesetz über die Arbeit in Industrie, Gewerbe und Handel
ArGV 1 Verordnung 1 zum Arbeitsgesetz
AsylG Asylgesetz
B:
BBG Bundesgesetzüber die Berufsbildung
BEG Bundesgesetz über Bucheffekten
BEHG Bundesgesetz über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BEHV Verordnung über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BG-HAÜ Bundesgesetz zum Haager Adoptionsübereinkommen und über Massnahmen zum Schutz des Kindes bei internationalen Adoptionen
BG-KKE Bundesgesetz über internationale Kindesentführung und die Haager Übereinkommen zum Schutz von Kindern und Erwachsenen
BGBB Bundesgesetz über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
BGFA Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit der Anwältinnen und Anwälte
BGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesgericht
BIV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Insolvenz von Banken und Effektenhändlern
BPG Bundespersonalgesetz
BPR Bundesgesetz über die politischen Rechte
BV Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft
BVG Bundesgesetz über die berufliche Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
BZG Bundesgesetz über den Bevölkerungsschutz und den Zivilschutz
BankG Bundesgesetz über die Banken und Sparkassen
BankV Verordnung über die Banken und Sparkassen
BetmG Bundesgesetz über die Betäubungsmittel und die psychotropen Stoffe
BewG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BewV Verordnung über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BöB Bundesgesetz über das öffentliche Beschaffungswesen
BüG Bundesgesetz über Erwerb und Verlust des Schweizer Bürgerrechts
D:
DBG Bundesgesetz über die direkte Bundessteuer
DSG Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
E:
EBG Eisenbahngesetz
EMRK Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten
EOG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerbsersatz für Dienstleistende und bei Mutterschaft
EOV Verordnung zum Erwerbsersatzgesetz
EÖBV Verordnung über die elektronische öffentliche Beurkundung
F:
FHG Bundesgesetz über den eidgenössischen Finanzhaushalt
FINMAG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzmarktaufsicht
FKG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzkontrolle
FMedG Bundesgesetz über die medizinisch unterstützte Fortpflanzung
FZG Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit in der beruflichen Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
FinfraG Bundesgesetz über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV Verordnung über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FusG Bundesgesetz über Fusion, Spaltung, Umwandlung und Vermögensübertragung
G:
GBV Grundbuchverordnung
GSG Bundesgesetz über die von der Schweiz als Gaststaat gewährten Vorrechte, Immunitäten und Erleichterungen sowie finanziellen Beiträge
GUMG Bundesgesetz über genetische Untersuchungen beim Menschen
GeBüV Verordnung über die Führung und Aufbewahrung der Geschäftsbücher
GebV SchKG Gebührenverordnung zum Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
GlG Bundesgesetz über die Gleichstellung von Frau und Mann
H:
HEsÜ Übereinkommen über den internationalen Schutz von Erwachsenen
HKsÜ Übereinkommen
HRegV Handelsregisterverordnung
I:
IPRG Bundesgesetz über das Internationale Privatrecht
J:
JStG Bundesgesetz über das Jugendstrafrecht
JStPO Schweizerische Jugendstrafprozessordnung
K:
KAG Bundesgesetz über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KAKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KG Bundesgesetz über Kartelle und andere Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
KKV Verordnung über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KOV Verordnung über die Geschäftsführung der Konkursämter (KOV)
KVG Bundesgesetz über die Krankenversicherung
L:
LVG Bundesgesetz über die wirtschaftliche Landesversorgung
LugÜ Übereinkommen über die gerichtliche Zuständigkeit und die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung von Entscheidungen in Zivil- und Handelssachen
M:
MSchG Bundesgesetz über den Schutz von Marken und Herkunftsangaben
MStG Militärstrafgesetz
MWSTG Bundesgesetz über die Mehrwertsteuer
MWSTV Mehrwertsteuerverordnung
O:
OAV-SchKG Verordnung betreffend die Oberaufsicht über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
OHG Bundesgesetz über die Hilfe an Opfer von Straftaten
OR Bundesgesetz betreffend die Ergänzung des Schweizerischen Zivilgesetzbuches (Fünfter Teil: Obligationenrecht)
P:
PAVO Verordnung über die Aufnahme von Pflegekindern
PBV Verordnung über die Bekanntgabe von Preisen
ParlG Bundesgesetz über die Bundesversammlung
PartG Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
PatGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundespatentgericht
PfG Pfandbriefgesetz
PrHG Bundesgesetz über die Produktehaftpflicht
PüG Preisüberwachungsgesetz
R:
RAG Bundesgesetz über die Zulassung und Beaufsichtigung der Revisorinnen und Revisoren
S:
SVG Strassenverkehrsgesetz
SVKG Verordnung über die Sanktionen bei unzulässigen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
SchKG Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
StBOG Bundesgesetz über die Organisation der Strafbehörden des Bundes
StG Bundesgesetz über die Stempelabgaben
StGB Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch
StHG Bundesgesetz über die Harmonisierung der direkten Steuern der Kantone und Gemeinden
StPO Schweizerische Strafprozessordnung
StV Verordnung über die Stempelabgaben
SuG Bundesgesetz über Finanzhilfen und Abgeltungen
U:
URG Bundesgesetz über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
URV Verordnung über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
UVG Bundesgesetz über die Unfallversicherung
UVV Verordnung über die Unfallversicherung
UWG Bundesgesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb
V:
VAG Bundesgesetz betreffend die Aufsicht über Versicherungsunternehmen
VASR Verordnung über die anerkannten Standards zur Rechnungslegung
VBB Verordnung über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
VBVV Verordnung über die Vermögensverwaltung im Rahmen einer Beistandschaft oder Vormundschaft
VDSG Verordnung zum Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
VG Bundesgesetz über die Verantwortlichkeit des Bundes sowie seiner Behördemitglieder und Beamten
VGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesverwaltungsgericht
VKA Verordnung über die Katastrophenhilfe im Ausland
VKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von Versicherungsunternehmen
VPAV Verordnung betreffend die Pfändung, Arrestierung und Verwertung von Versicherungsansprüchen nach dem Bundesgesetz vom 2. April 1908 über den Versicherungsvertrag
VStG Bundesgesetz über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStV Verordnung über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStrR Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsstrafrecht
VVAG Verordnung über die Pfändung und Verwertung von Anteilen an Gemeinschaftsvermögen
VVG Bundesgesetz über den Versicherungsvertrag
VZG Verordnung des Bundesgerichts über die Zwangsverwertung von Grundstücken
VegüV Verordnung gegen übermässige Vergütungen bei börsenkotierten Aktiengesellschaften
VeÜ-ZSSV Verordnung über die elektronische Übermittlung im Rahmen von Zivil- und Strafprozessen sowie von Schuldbetreibungs- und Konkursverfahren
VwVG Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsverfahren
VüKU Verordnung über die Kontrolle von Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen
VüS Verordnung über das Strafregister
W:
WG Bundesgesetz über Waffen, Waffenzubehör und Munition
Z:
ZG Zollgesetz
ZGB Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch
ZPO Schweizerische Zivilprozessordnung
ZStV Zivilstandsverordnung
ZTG Zolltarifgesetz
Ü:
ÜbZ Übereinkunft betreffend Zivilprozessrecht
ÜüAVaS Übereinkommen über die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung ausländischer Schiedssprüche
ÜüRK Übereinkommen über die Rechte des Kindes
ÜüSKZGIA Übereinkommen über den Schutz von Kindern und die Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Internationalen Adoption
ÜüiZR Übereinkommen über den internationalen Zugang zur Rechtspflege
ÜüzAiK Übereinkommen über die zivilrechtlichen Aspekte internationaler Kindesentführung
C:
CC Code civil suisse
CEDH Convention de sauvegarde des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales
CL Convention concernant la compétence judiciaire, la reconnaissance et l'exécution des décisions en matière civile et commerciale
CLaH 2000 Convention sur la protection internationale des adultes
CLaH 96 Convention
CO Loi fédérale complétant le Code civil suisse
CP Code pénal suisse
CPC Code de procédure civile
CPM Code pénal militaire
CPP Code de procédure pénale suisse
Caclid Convention sur les aspects civils de l’enlèvement international d’enfants
Cpecmdi Convention sur la protection des enfants et la coopération en matière d’adoption internationale
Cprlsaé Convention pour la reconnaissance et l’exécution des sentences arbitrales étrangères
Crdl Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
Crpc Convention relative à la procédure civile
Cst. Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse
Ctflij Convention tendant à faciliter l’accès international à la justice
D:
DPA Loi fédérale sur le droit pénal administratif
DPMin Loi fédérale régissant la condition pénale des mineurs
L:
LAA Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-accidents
LACI Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-chômage obligatoire et l’indemnité en cas d’insolvabilité
LAGH Loi fédérale sur l'analyse génétique humaine
LAMal Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-maladie
LAP Loi fédérale sur l'approvisionnement économique du pays
LAPG Loi fédérale sur les allocations pour perte de gain en cas de service et de maternité
LAVI Loi fédérale sur l'aide aux victimes d'infractions
LAVS Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-vieillesse et survivants
LArm Loi fédérale sur les armes, les accessoires d’armes et les munitions
LAsi Loi sur l’asile
LB Loi fédérale sur les banques et les caisses d’épargne
LBVM Loi fédérale sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
LCA Loi fédérale sur le contrat d'assurance
LCD Loi fédérale contre la concurrence déloyale
LCF Loi fédérale sur le Contrôle fédéral des finances
LCR Loi fédérale sur la circulation routière
LCart Loi fédérale sur les cartels et autres restrictions à la concurrence
LCdF Loi fédérale sur les chemins de fer
LD Loi sur les douanes
LDA Loi fédérale sur le droit d’auteur et les droits voisins
LDFR Loi fédérale sur le droit foncier rural
LDIP Loi fédérale sur le droit international privé
LDP Loi fédérale sur les droits politiques
LEH Loi fédérale sur les privilèges, les immunités et les facilités, ainsi que sur les aides financières accordés par la Suisse en tant qu'Etat hôte
LEI Loi fédérale sur les étrangers et l’intégration
LEg Loi fédérale sur l’égalité entre femmes et hommes
LF-CLaH Loi fédérale relative à la Convention de La Haye sur l'adoption et aux mesures de protection de l'enfant en cas d'adoption internationale
LF-EEA Loi fédérale sur l'enlèvement international d'enfants et les Conventions de La Haye sur la protection des enfants et des adultes
LFAIE Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
LFC Loi sur les finances de la Confédération
LFINMA Loi sur l’Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers
LFLP Loi fédérale sur le libre passage dans la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LFPr Loi fédérale sur la formation professionnelle
LFus Loi fédérale sur la fusion, la scission, la transformation et le transfert de patrimoine
LHID Loi fédérale sur l’harmonisation des impôts directs des cantons et des communes
LIA Loi fédérale sur l’impôt anticipé (LIA)
LIFD Loi fédérale sur l’impôt fédéral direct
LIMF Loi fédérale sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés*
LLCA Loi fédérale sur la libre circulation des avocats
LLG Loi sur l'émission de lettres de gage
LMP Loi fédérale sur les marchés publics
LN Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition et la perte de la nationalité suisse
LOAP Loi fédérale sur l'organisation des autorités pénales de la Confédération
LP Loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
LPCC Loi fédérale sur les placements collectifs de capitaux*
LPD Loi fédérale sur la protection des données
LPM Loi fédérale sur la protection des marques et des indications de provenance
LPMA Loi fédérale sur la procréation médicalement assistée*
LPP Loi fédérale sur la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LPPCi Loi fédérale sur la protection de la population et sur la protection civile
LParl Loisur l’Assemblée fédérale
LPart Loi fédérale sur le partenariat enregistré entre personnes du même sexe
LPers Loi sur le personnel de la Confédération
LRCF Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité de la Confédération, des membres de ses autorités et de ses fonctionnaires
LRFP Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité du fait des produits
LSA Loi fédérale sur la surveillance des entreprises d’assurance
LSPr Loi fédérale concernant la surveillance des prix
LSR Loi fédérale sur l’agrément et la surveillance des réviseurs
LStup Loi fédérale sur les stupéfiants et les substances psychotropes
LSu Loi fédérale sur les aides financières et les indemnités
LT Loi fédérale sur les droits de timbre
LTAF Loi sur le Tribunal administratif fédéral
LTF Loi sur le Tribunal fédéral
LTFB Loi<em></em>sur le Tribunal fédéral des brevets
LTI Loi fédérale sur les titres intermédiés
LTVA Loi fédérale régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
LTaD Loi sur le tarif des douanes
LTr Loi fédérale sur le travail dans l'industrie, l'artisanat et le commerce
O:
OAAE Ordonnance sur l'acte authentique électronique
OACata Ordonnance sur l'aide en cas de catastrophe à l'étranger
OAIE Ordonnance sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
OAOF Ordonnance sur l'administration des offices de faillite
OAdo Ordonnance sur l'adoption
OB Ordonnance sur les banques et les caisses d’épargne
OBVM Ordonnance sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
OCEl-PCPP Ordonnance sur la communication électronique dans le cadre de procédures civiles et pénales et de procédures en matière de poursuite pour dettes et de faillite
ODAu Ordonnance sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins
ODFR Ordonnance sur le droit foncier rural
OEC Ordonnance sur l’état civil
OELP Ordonnance sur les émoluments perçus en application de la loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
OFA-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite des entreprises d'assurance
OFPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite de placements collectifs de capitaux
OGPCT Ordonnance sur la gestion du patrimoine dans le cadre d'une curatelle ou d'une tutelle
OHS-LP Ordonnance relative à la haute surveillance en matière de poursuite et de faillite
OIA Ordonnance sur l’impôt anticipé
OIB-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur l'insolvabilité des banques et des négociants en valeurs mobilières
OIMF Ordonnance sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés
OIMF-FINMA Ordonnance
OIP Ordonnance sur l'indication des prix
OLAA Ordonnance sur l'assurance-accidents
OLPD Ordonnance relative à la loi fédérale sur la protection des données
OLT 1 Ordonnance 1 relative à la loi sur le travail
ONCR Ordonnance sur les normes comptables reconnues
OPC Ordonnance concernant la saisie et la réalisation de parts de communautés
OPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPCC Ordonnance sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPE Ordonnance sur le placement d'enfants
ORAb Ordonnance contre les rémunérations abusives dans les sociétés anonymes cotées en bourse
ORC Ordonnance sur le registre du commerce
ORF Ordonnance sur le registre foncier
ORFI Ordonnance du Tribunal fédéral sur la réalisation forcée des immeubles
OS Ordonnance sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OS LCart Ordonnance sur les sanctions en cas de restrictions illicites à la concurrence
OS-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OSAss Ordonnance concernant la saisie, le séquestre et la réalisation des droits découlant d'assurances d'après la loi fédérale du 2 avril 1908 sur le contrat d'assurance
OT Ordonnance sur les droits de timbre
OTVA Ordonnance régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
Occd Ordonnance sur le contrôle des concentrations d'entreprises
Ocj Ordonnance sur le casier judiciaire
Olico Ordonnance concernant la tenue et la conservation des livres de comptes
P:
PA Loi fédérale sur la procédure administrative
PPMin Loi fédérale sur la procédure pénale applicable aux mineurs
R:
RAPG Règlement sur les allocations pour perte de gain
RAVS Règlement sur l’assurance-vieillesse et survivants
C:
C Convenzione
CC Codice civile svizzero
CEDU Convenzione per la salvaguardia dei diritti dell'uomo e delle libertà fondamentali
CLug Convenzione concernente la competenza giurisdizionale, il riconoscimento e l'esecuzione delle decisioni in materia civile e commerciale
CO Legge federale di complemento del Codice civile svizzero
CP Codice penale svizzero
CPC Codice di diritto processuale civile svizzero
CPM Codice penale militare
CPP Codice di diritto processuale penale svizzero
Ccrldsae Convenzione concernente il riconoscimento e l’esecuzione delle sentenze arbitrali estere
Cdf Convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo
Cost. Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera
Crapc Convenzione relativa alla procedura civile
Csacrim Convenzione sugli aspetti civili del rapimento internazionale di minori
Cspida Convenzione sulla protezione internazionale degli adulti
Cspmscmai Convenzione sulla protezione dei minori e sulla cooperazione in materia di adozione internazionale
Cvfliag Convenzione volta a facilitare l’accesso internazionale alla giustizia
D:
DPA Legge federale sul diritto penale amministrativo
DPMin Legge federale sul diritto penale minorile
L:
LADI Legge federale sull’assicurazione obbligatoria contro la disoccupazione e l’indennità per insolvenza
LAFE Legge federale sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
LAID Legge federale sull’armonizzazione delle imposte dirette dei Cantoni e dei Comuni
LAINF Legge federale sull’assicurazione contro gli infortuni
LAMal Legge federale sull’assicurazione malattie
LAP Legge federale sull'approvvigionamento economico del Paese
LAPub Legge federale sugli acquisti pubblici
LAV Legge federale concernente l'aiuto alle vittime di reati
LAVS Legge federale su l’assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
LArm Legge federale sulle armi, gli accessori di armi e le munizioni
LAsi Legge sull’asilo
LBCR Legge federale sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
LBVM Legge federale sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
LCA Legge federale sul contratto d'assicurazione
LCF Legge federale sul controllo federale delle finanze
LCSl Legge federale contro la concorrenza sleale
LCStr Legge federale sulla circolazione stradale
LCart Legge federale sui cartelli e altre limitazioni della concorrenza
LCit Legge federale su l'acquisto e la perdita della cittadinanza svizzera
LD Legge sulle dogane
LDA Legge federale sul diritto d’autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
LDFR Legge federale sul diritto fondiario rurale
LDIP Legge federale sul diritto internazionale privato
LDP Legge federale sui diritti politici
LEF Legge federale sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
LEGU Legge federale sugli esami genetici sull'essere umano
LF-CAA Legge federale relativa alla Convenzione dell'Aia sull'adozione e a provvedimenti per la protezione del minore nelle adozioni internazionali
LF-RMA Legge federale sul rapimento internazionale dei minori e sulle Convenzioni dell'Aia sulla protezione dei minori e degli adulti
LFC Legge federale sulle finanze della Confederazione
LFINMA Legge federale concernente l’Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari
LFLP Legge federale sul libero passaggio nella previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l'invalidità
LFPr Legge federale sulla formazione professionale
LFus Legge federale sulla fusione, la scissione, la trasformazione e il trasferimento di patrimonio
LICol Legge federale sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
LIFD Legge federale sull’imposta federale diretta
LIP Legge federale sull’imposta preventiva
LIPG Legge federale sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno per chi presta servizio e in caso di maternità
LIVA Legge federale concernente l’imposta sul valore aggiunto
LInFi Legge federale sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
LL Legge federale sul lavoro nell'industria, nell'artigianato e nel commercio
LLCA Legge federale sulla libera circolazione degli avvocati
LOAP Legge federale sull'organizzazione delle autorità penali della Confederazione
LOF Legge sulle obbligazioni fondiarie
LPAM Legge federale concernente la procreazione con assistenza medica
LPD Legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
LPM Legge federale sulla protezione dei marchi e delle indicazioni di provenienza
LPP Legge federale sulla previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l’invalidità
LPPC Legge federale sulla protezione della popolazione e sulla protezione civile
LPar Legge federale sulla parità dei sessi
LParl Legge federale sull’Assemblea federale
LPers Legge sul personale federale
LRDP Legge federale sulla responsabilità per danno da prodotti
LResp Legge federale su la responsabilità della Confederazione, dei membri delle autorità federali e dei funzionari federali
LSA Legge federale sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione
LSO Legge federale sui privilegi, le immunità e le facilitazioni, nonché sugli aiuti finanziari accordati dalla Svizzera quale Stato ospite
LSPr Legge federale sulla sorveglianza dei prezzi
LSR Legge federalesull’abilitazione e la sorveglianza dei revisori
LStrI Legge federale sugli stranieri e la loro integrazione
LStup Legge federale sugli stupefacenti e sulle sostanze psicotrope
LSu Legge federale sugli aiuti finanziari e le indennità
LTAF Legge sul Tribunale amministrativo federale
LTB Legge federale sulle tasse di bollo
LTCo Legge federale sui titoli contabili
LTD Legge sulla tariffa delle dogane
LTF Legge sul Tribunale federale
LTFB Legge sul Tribunale federale dei brevetti
LUD Legge federale sull'unione domestica registrata di coppie omosessuali
Lferr Legge federale sulle ferrovie
O:
OABCT Ordinanza sull'amministrazione di beni nell'ambito di una curatela o di una tutela
OACata Ordinanza sull'aiuto in caso di catastrofe all'estero
OAFE Ordinanza sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
OAINF Ordinanza sull'assicurazione contro gli infortuni
OAMin Ordinanza sull'accoglimento di minori a scopo di affiliazione
OAPuE Ordinanza sugli atti pubblici in forma elettronica
OAV-LEF Ordinanza concernente l'alta vigilanza sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
OAVS Ordinanza sull’assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
OAdoz Ordinanza sull'adozione
OBCR Ordinanza sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
OBVM Ordinanza sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
OCE-PCPE Ordinanza sulla comunicazione per via elettronica nell’ambito di procedimenti civili e penali nonché di procedure d’esecuzione e fallimento
ODAu Ordinanza sul diritto d'autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
ODFR Ordinanza sul diritto fondiario rurale
ODiC Ordinanza concernente il pignoramento e la realizzazione di diritti in comunione
OFA-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento delle imprese di assicurazione
OFICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento degli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIB-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sull'insolvenza di banche e commercianti di valori mobiliari
OICol Ordinanza sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIP Ordinanza sull'indicazione dei prezzi
OIPG Ordinanza sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno
OIPrev Ordinanza sull’imposta preventiva
OIVA Ordinanza concernente l'imposta sul valore aggiunto
OInFi Ordinanza sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
OInFi-FINMA Ordinanza
OLL 1 Ordinanza 1 concernente la legge sul lavoro
OLPD Ordinanza relativa alla legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
ONCR Ordinanza sulle norme contabili riconosciute
ORC Ordinanza sul registro di commercio
ORF Ordinanza sul registro fondiario
OReSA Ordinanza contro le retribuzioni abusive nelle società anonime quotate in borsa
OS Ordinanza sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private
OS LCart Ordinanza sulle sanzioni in caso di limitazioni illecite della concorrenza
OS-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private
OSC Ordinanza sullo stato civile
OTB Ordinanza concernente le tasse di bollo
OTLEF Ordinanza sulle tasse riscosse in applicazione della legge federale sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
Occdci Ordinanza concernente il controllo delle concentrazioni di imprese
Ocg Ordinanza sul casellario giudiziale
Olc Ordinanza sulla tenuta e la conservazione dei libri di commercio
P:
PA Legge federale sulla procedura amministrativa
PPMin Legge federale di diritto processuale penale minorile
R:
RFF Regolamento del Tribunale federale concernente la realizzazione forzata di fondi
RPAss Regolamento
RUF Regolamento concernente l'amministrazione degli uffici dei fallimenti
A:
AIG Federal Act on Foreign Nationals and Integration
AdoV Ordinance on Adoption
AsylG Asylum Act
B:
BBG Federal Acton Vocational and Professional Education and Training
BEG Federal Act on Intermediated Securities
BG-KKE Federal Act on International Child Abduction and the Hague Conventions on the Protection of Children and Adults
BIV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on the Insolvency of Banks and Securities Dealers
BPR Federal Act on Political Rights
BV Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
BetmG Federal Act on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances
D:
DSG Federal Act on Data Protection
F:
FINMAG Federal Act on the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority
FMedG Federal Act on Medically Assisted Reproduction
FinfraG Federal Act on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
FinfraV Ordinance on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
FinfraV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on Financial Market Infrastructures and Market Conduct in Securities and Derivatives Trading
G:
GSG Federal Act on the Privileges, Immunities and Facilities and the Financial Subsidies granted by Switzerland as a Host State
GUMG Federal Act on Human Genetic Testing
GlG Federal Act on Gender Equality
K:
KAG Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes
KG Federal Act on Cartels and other Restraints of Competition
KKV Ordinance on Collective Investment Schemes
KKV-FINMA Ordinance of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority on Collective Investment Schemes
M:
MSchG Federal Act on the Protection of Trade Marks and Indications of Source
MWSTG Federal Act on Value Added Tax
MWSTV Ordinance on Value Added Tax
O:
OR Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code
P:
ParlG Federal Act on the Federal Assembly
PatGG Federal Act on the Federal Patent Court
S:
SVKG Ordinance on Sanctions imposed for Unlawful Restraints of Competition
StGB Swiss Criminal Code
StPO Swiss Criminal Procedure Code
U:
URG Federal Act on Copyright and Related Rights
V:
VDSG 235.11
VwVG Federal Act on Administrative Procedure
VüKU Ordinance on the Control of Concentrations of Undertakings
W:
WG Federal Act on Weapons, Weapon Accessories and Ammunition
Z:
ZGB Swiss Civil Code
ZPO Swiss Civil Procedure Code
ZTG Customs Tariff Act