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Swiss Criminal Procedure Code

English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force.

The Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation,

on the basis of Article 123 paragraph 1 of the Federal Constitution1, and having considered the Federal Council Dispatch dated 21 December 20052,

decrees:

Title 1 Scope of Application and Principles

Chapter 1 Scope of Application and the Administration of Criminal Justice

Art. 1 Scope of application

1This Code reg­u­lates the pro­sec­u­tion and ad­ju­dic­a­tion by the fed­er­al and can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies of of­fences un­der fed­er­al law.

2The pro­ced­ur­al reg­u­la­tions con­tained in oth­er fed­er­al acts are re­served.

Art. 2 Administration of criminal justice

1The ad­min­is­tra­tion of crim­in­al justice is the re­spons­ib­il­ity solely of the au­thor­it­ies spe­cified by law.

2Crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings may be con­duc­ted and con­cluded only in the forms provided for by law.

Chapter 2 Principles of Criminal Procedure Law

Art. 3 Respect for human dignity and requirement of fairness

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall re­spect the dig­nity of the per­sons af­fected by the pro­ceed­ings at all stages of the pro­ceed­ings.

2They shall in par­tic­u­lar com­ply with:

a.
the prin­ciple of good faith;
b.
the re­quire­ment not to ab­use the rights of oth­ers;
c.
the re­quire­ment to treat all per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings equally and fairly and to grant them the right to be heard;
d.
the pro­hib­i­tion, when tak­ing evid­ence, of us­ing meth­ods that vi­ol­ate hu­man dig­nity.

Art. 4 Independence

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies are in­de­pend­ent in ap­ply­ing the law and bound solely by the law.

2Stat­utory powers to is­sue dir­ect­ives to the pro­sec­u­tion au­thor­it­ies un­der Art­icle 14 are re­served.

Art. 5 Principle of expeditiousness

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall com­mence crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings im­me­di­ately and con­clude them without un­jus­ti­fied delay.

2Where an ac­cused is in de­ten­tion, the pro­ceed­ings shall be con­duc­ted as a mat­ter of ur­gency.

Art. 6 Principle of substantive truth

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall in­vest­ig­ate ex of­fi­cio all the cir­cum­stances rel­ev­ant to the as­sess­ment of the crim­in­al act and the ac­cused.

2They shall in­vest­ig­ate in­crim­in­at­ing and ex­culp­at­ing cir­cum­stances with equal care.

Art. 7 Obligation to prosecute

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies are ob­liged to com­mence and con­duct pro­ceed­ings that fall with­in their jur­is­dic­tion where they are aware of or have grounds for sus­pect­ing that an of­fence has been com­mit­ted.

2The can­tons may provide:

a.
for the ex­clu­sion or lim­it­a­tion of crim­in­al li­ab­il­ity for state­ments made in the can­ton­al par­lia­ment by the mem­bers of their le­gis­lat­ive and ju­di­cial au­thor­it­ies and of their gov­ern­ments;
b.
that the pro­sec­u­tion of mem­bers of their au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for the ex­e­cu­tion of sen­tences and meas­ures and ju­di­cial au­thor­it­ies for felon­ies or mis­de­mean­ours com­mit­ted while in of­fice be made sub­ject to the au­thor­isa­tion of a non-ju­di­cial au­thor­ity.

Art. 8 Waiving prosecution

1The pub­lic pro­sec­utor and courts shall waive pro­sec­u­tion if the fed­er­al law so per­mits, in par­tic­u­lar sub­ject to the re­quire­ments of Art­icles 52, 53 and 54 of the Swiss Crim­in­al Code1 (SCC).

2Un­less it is con­trary to the private claimant's over­rid­ing in­terests, they shall also waive pro­sec­u­tion if:

a.
the of­fence is of neg­li­gible im­port­ance in com­par­is­on with the oth­er of­fences with which the ac­cused is charged as re­gards the ex­pec­ted sen­tence or meas­ure;
b.
any ad­di­tion­al pen­alty im­posed in com­bin­a­tion with the sen­tence in the fi­nal judg­ment would be neg­li­gible;
c.
an equi­val­ent sen­tence im­posed abroad would have to be taken in­to ac­count when im­pos­ing a sen­tence for the of­fence pro­sec­uted.

3Un­less it is con­trary to the private claimant's over­rid­ing in­terests, the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and courts may waive the pro­sec­u­tion if the of­fence is already be­ing pro­sec­uted by a for­eign au­thor­ity or the pro­sec­u­tion has been as­signed to such an au­thor­ity.

4In such cases, they shall is­sue an or­der stat­ing that no pro­ceed­ings are be­ing tak­ing or that the on­go­ing pro­ceed­ings have been aban­doned.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 9 Principle of no judgment without a charge

1An of­fence may only be ju­di­cially as­sessed if the pub­lic pro­sec­utor has brought a re­lated charge against a spe­cif­ic per­son in the com­pet­ent court based on pre­cisely de­scribed cir­cum­stances.

2The fore­go­ing para­graph does not ap­ply to pro­ceed­ings re­lat­ing to sum­mary pen­alty or­ders and con­tra­ven­tions.

Art. 10 Presumption of innocence and assessment of evidence

1Every per­son is pre­sumed to be in­no­cent un­til they have been con­victed in a judg­ment that is fi­nal and leg­ally bind­ing.

2The court shall be free to in­ter­pret the evid­ence in ac­cord­ance with the views that it forms over the en­tire pro­ceed­ings.

3Where there is in­sur­mount­able doubt as to wheth­er the fac­tu­al re­quire­ments of al­leged of­fence have been ful­filled, the court shall pro­ceed on the as­sump­tion that the cir­cum­stances more fa­vour­able to the ac­cused oc­curred.

Art. 11 Prohibition of double jeopardy

1No per­son who has been con­victed or ac­quit­ted in Switzer­land by a fi­nal leg­ally bind­ing judg­ment may be pro­sec­uted again for the same of­fence.

2The fore­go­ing para­graph does not ap­ply to pro­ceed­ings that have been waived or aban­doned and to the re­view of a case.

Title 2 Criminal Justice Authorities

Chapter 1 Powers

Section 1 General Provisions

Art. 12 Prosecution authorities

The pro­sec­u­tion au­thor­it­ies are:

a.
the po­lice;
b.
the pub­lic pro­sec­utor;
c.
the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions.

Art. 13 Courts

The fol­low­ing bod­ies have ju­di­cial powers in crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings:

a.
the com­puls­ory meas­ures court;
b.
the court of first in­stance;
c.
the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity;
d.
the court of ap­peal.

Art. 14 Titles and organisation of the criminal justice authorities

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall de­term­ine their own crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies and the titles that they use.

2They shall reg­u­late the com­pos­i­tion, or­gan­isa­tion and powers of the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies and the ap­point­ment of their mem­bers, un­less this Code or oth­er fed­er­al acts reg­u­late the same in full.

3They may es­tab­lish the of­fices of a chief pub­lic pro­sec­utor or at­tor­ney gen­er­al.

4They may es­tab­lish two or more sim­il­ar crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies and spe­cify the loc­al or ma­ter­i­al jur­is­dic­tion of each; ex­emp­ted there­from are the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity and the court of ap­peal.

5They shall reg­u­late the su­per­vi­sion of their crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies.

Section 2 Prosecution Authorities

Art. 15 Police

1The activ­it­ies of the fed­er­al, can­ton­al and com­mun­al po­lice in pro­sec­u­tion mat­ters are gov­erned by this Code.

2The po­lice in­vest­ig­ate of­fences on their own ini­ti­at­ive, in re­sponse to re­ports from mem­bers of the pub­lic and from au­thor­it­ies, and on the in­struc­tions of the pub­lic pro­sec­utor; in do­ing so, they are sub­ject to the su­per­vi­sion and the dir­ect­ives of the pub­lic pro­sec­utor.

3Where crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings are pending be­fore a court, the court may is­sue the po­lice with in­struc­tions and as­sign­ments.

Art. 16 Public prosecutor

1The pub­lic pro­sec­utor is re­spons­ible for the uni­form ex­er­cise of the state's right to pun­ish crim­in­al con­duct.

2It con­ducts pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings, pur­sues of­fences with­in the scope of the in­vest­ig­a­tion, and where ap­plic­able brings charges and acts as pro­sec­utor.

Art. 17 Authorities responsible for prosecuting contraventions

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may del­eg­ate the pro­sec­u­tion and ad­ju­dic­a­tion of con­tra­ven­tions to ad­min­is­trat­ive au­thor­it­ies.

2Where con­tra­ven­tions are com­mit­ted in con­nec­tion with a felony or mis­de­mean­our, they shall be pro­sec­uted by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and judged by the courts at the same time as the more ser­i­ous of­fence.

Section 3 Courts

Art. 18 Compulsory measures court

1The com­puls­ory meas­ures court is re­spons­ible for or­der­ing the ac­cused's re­mand or pre­vent­ive de­ten­tion and, where this Code so provides, for or­der­ing or ap­prov­ing ad­di­tion­al com­puls­ory meas­ures.

2Mem­bers of the com­puls­ory meas­ures court may not sit as judge in the main hear­ing in the same case.

Art. 19 Court of first instance

1The court of first in­stance as­sesses, as the first in­stance, all of­fences that do not fall with­in the jur­is­dic­tion of oth­er au­thor­it­ies.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may provide that the court of first in­stance com­prise one judge sit­ting alone to as­sess:

a.
con­tra­ven­tions;
b.
felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours, with ex­cep­tion of those for which the pub­lic pro­sec­utor de­mands a cus­todi­al sen­tence of more than two years, in­def­in­ite in­car­cer­a­tion in terms of Art­icle 64 SCC1, treat­ment in terms of Art­icle 59 para­graph 3 SCC or, in the case of sus­pen­ded sanc­tions to be re­voked sim­ul­tan­eously, a depriva­tion of liberty of more than two years.

1 SR 311.0

Art. 20 Objections authority

1The ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity rules on ob­jec­tions against the pro­ced­ur­al acts and de­cisions not sub­ject to form­al ap­peal:

a.
of the courts of first in­stance;
b.
of the po­lice, the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions;
c.
of the com­puls­ory meas­ures court in the cases provided for by this Code.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may as­sign the powers of the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity to the court of ap­peal.

Art. 21 Court of appeal

1The court of ap­peal de­cides on:

a.
ap­peals against judg­ments of the courts of first in­stance;
b.
ap­plic­a­tions for the re­view of a case.

2Any per­son who has ac­ted as a mem­ber of the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity may not sit as a mem­ber of the court of ap­peal in the same case.

3Any per­son who has ac­ted as a mem­ber of the court of ap­peal in a spe­cif­ic case may not act as a judge re­view­ing the same case.

Chapter 2 Material Jurisdiction

Section 1 Extent of Federal and Cantonal Jurisdiction

Art. 22 Cantonal jurisdiction

The can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall pro­sec­ute and judge of­fences un­der fed­er­al law, sub­ject to the stat­utory ex­cep­tions.

Art. 23 Federal jurisdiction in general

1The fol­low­ing of­fences in the SCC1 are sub­ject to fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion:

a.2
the of­fences in Titles One and Four and Art­icles 140, 156, 189 and 190 in­so­far as they are com­mit­ted against per­sons pro­tec­ted by in­ter­na­tion­al law, mem­bers of the Fed­er­al Coun­cil, the Fed­er­al Chan­cel­lor or judges of the Fed­er­al Courts, mem­bers the Fed­er­al As­sembly, the Fed­er­al At­tor­ney Gen­er­al or the Deputy At­tor­neys Gen­er­al;
b.
the of­fences in Art­icles 137–141, 144, 160 and 172ter in­so­far as they re­late to premises, archives or doc­u­ments of dip­lo­mat­ic mis­sions and con­su­lates;
c.
the tak­ing of host­ages in terms of Art­icle 185 in or­der to ex­ert duress on fed­er­al or for­eign au­thor­it­ies;
d.
felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours un­der Art­icle 224–226ter;
e.3
the felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours in Title Ten re­lat­ing to coin­age, pa­per money and bank­notes, of­fi­cial stamps and oth­er fed­er­al marks, weights and meas­ures;
f.
the felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours in Title El­ev­en in­so­far as they re­late to of­fi­cial fed­er­al doc­u­ments, with the ex­cep­tion of driv­ing li­cences and re­ceipts for postal money trans­fers; not in­cluded are vign­ettes for us­ing first and second class na­tion­al high­ways;
g.4
the of­fences in Title Twelvebis and Twelveter as well as Art­icle 264k;
h.
the of­fences in Art­icle 260bis and in Titles Thir­teen to Fif­teen and in Title Sev­en­teen, provided they are dir­ec­ted against the Con­fed­er­a­tion, the au­thor­it­ies of the Con­fed­er­a­tion, the will of the People in fed­er­al elec­tions, pop­u­lar votes, re­quests for a ref­er­en­dum or ini­ti­at­ives, against fed­er­al powers or against the ad­min­is­tra­tion of fed­er­al justice;
i.
the felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours in Title Six­teen;
j.
the of­fences in Titles Eight­een and Nine­teen in­so­far as they are com­mit­ted by a mem­ber of an au­thor­ity or an em­ploy­ee of the Con­fed­er­a­tion or against the Con­fed­er­a­tion;
k.
the con­tra­ven­tions in Art­icles 329–331;
l.
polit­ic­al felon­ies and mis­de­mean­ours that are the cause or con­sequence of un­rest that gives rise to armed fed­er­al in­ter­ven­tion.

2The reg­u­la­tions con­tained in spe­cial fed­er­al acts on the jur­is­dic­tion of the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court are re­served.


1 SR 311.0
2 Amended by An­nex No II 7 of the Crim­in­al Justice Au­thor­it­ies Act of 19 March 2010, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 3267; BBl 2008 8125).
3 Amended by An­nex No II 1 of the Fixed Pen­al­ties Act of 18 March 2016, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (AS 2017 6559; BBl 2015 959).
4 Amended by No I 3 of the FA of 18 June 2010 on the Amend­ment of Fed­er­al Le­gis­la­tion in Im­ple­ment­a­tion of the Rome Stat­ute of the In­ter­na­tion­al Crim­in­al Court, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 4963; BBl 2008 3863).

Art. 24 Federal jurisdiction in the case of organised crime, terrorist financing and white-collar crime

1Fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion fur­ther ap­plies to the of­fences in Art­icles 260ter, 260quin­quies, 305bis, 305ter and 322ter–322sep­ties SCC1 as well as the felon­ies as­so­ci­ated with a crim­in­al or­gan­isa­tion as defined in Art­icle 260ter SCC, if the of­fences:

a.
have to sub­stan­tial ex­tent been com­mit­ted abroad;
b.
have been com­mit­ted in two or more can­tons with no single can­ton be­ing the clear fo­cus of the crim­in­al activ­ity.

2In the case of felon­ies un­der Titles Two and El­ev­en of the SCC, the Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land may open an in­vest­ig­a­tion if:

a.
the re­quire­ments of para­graph 1 are ful­filled; and
b.
no can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity is deal­ing with the case or if the com­pet­ent can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity re­quests the Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land to take over the case.

3The open­ing of an in­vest­ig­a­tion in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 2 es­tab­lishes fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 25 Delegation to the cantons

1The Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land may as­sign a crim­in­al case sub­ject to fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion in terms of Art­icle 23 to the can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies for in­vest­ig­a­tion and ad­ju­dic­a­tion or, by way of ex­cep­tion, for as­sess­ment only. Ex­emp­ted there­from are crim­in­al cases in terms of Art­icle 23 para­graph 1 let­ter g.

2In minor cases, it may also as­sign a crim­in­al case sub­ject to fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion in terms of Art­icle 24 to the can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies for in­vest­ig­a­tion and ad­ju­dic­a­tion.

Art. 26 Multiple jurisdiction

1If the of­fence was com­mit­ted in two or more can­tons or abroad or if of­fend­ers, co-of­fend­ers, or par­ti­cipants are dom­i­ciled or ha­bitu­ally res­id­ent in dif­fer­ent can­tons, the Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land shall de­cide which can­ton in­vest­ig­ates and ad­ju­dic­ates the case.

2If a crim­in­al case is sub­ject to both fed­er­al and can­ton­al jur­is­dic­tion, the Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land may in­struct the pro­ceed­ings to be com­bined and dealt with by the fed­er­al au­thor­it­ies or the can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies.

3Jur­is­dic­tion es­tab­lished in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 2 con­tin­ues to ap­ply even if that part of the pro­ceed­ings that es­tab­lished jur­is­dic­tion has been aban­doned.

4Where del­eg­a­tion in ac­cord­ance with this Chapter is an op­tion, the pub­lic pro­sec­utors of the Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall provide each oth­er with their re­spect­ive files. Once the de­cision is made, the files shall be passed to the au­thor­ity that must in­vest­ig­ate and ad­ju­dic­ate the case.

Art. 27 Jurisdiction over the initial enquiries

1Where a case is sub­ject to fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion, the mat­ter is ur­gent and the fed­er­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies are not yet in­volved, the po­lice en­quir­ies and the in­vest­ig­a­tion may also be con­duc­ted by the can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies that have loc­al jur­is­dic­tion un­der the rules on place of jur­is­dic­tion. The Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land must be no­ti­fied im­me­di­ately; the case must be trans­ferred to the OAG or re­ferred for a de­cision in terms of Art­icles 25 or 26 as soon as pos­sible.

2In the case of of­fences that have been com­mit­ted wholly or partly in two or more can­tons or abroad and for which fed­er­al or can­ton­al jur­is­dic­tion has not yet been es­tab­lished, the fed­er­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies may con­duct the ini­tial en­quir­ies.

Art. 28 Conflicts

In the event of con­flicts between the Of­fice of the At­tor­ney Gen­er­al of Switzer­land and can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies, the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court shall de­cide.

Section 2 Jurisdiction where two or more Offences coincide

Art. 29 Principle of unity of proceedings

1Of­fences shall be pro­sec­uted and ad­ju­dic­ated to­geth­er where:

a.
one per­son is ac­cused of two or more of­fences; or
b.
the case in­volves co-of­fend­ing or par­ti­cip­a­tion.

2Where one or more of mul­tiple of­fences are sub­ject to fed­er­al jur­is­dic­tion or mul­tiple of­fences have been com­mit­ted in dif­fer­ent can­tons and by two or more per­sons, Art­icles 25 and 33–38 take pre­ced­ence.

Art. 30 Exceptions

The pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the courts may sep­ar­ate or com­bine crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings for prac­tic­al reas­ons.

Chapter 3 Place of Jurisdiction

Section 1 Principles

Art. 31 Place of jurisdiction of the place of commission

1The au­thor­it­ies of the locus of crim­in­al act was com­mit­ted have jur­is­dic­tion to pro­sec­ute and ad­ju­dic­ate the of­fence. If it is only the out­come of the of­fence that oc­curs in Switzer­land, the au­thor­it­ies at the place where it oc­curs have jur­is­dic­tion.

2Where the of­fence is com­mit­ted in two or more places or if the out­come oc­curs in two or more places, the au­thor­it­ies in the place where the ini­tial pro­sec­u­tion pro­ced­ures are car­ried out have jur­is­dic­tion.

3Where an ac­cused has com­mit­ted two or more felon­ies, mis­de­mean­ours or con­tra­ven­tions in the same locus, the vari­ous pro­ceed­ings shall be com­bined.

Art. 32 Place of jurisdiction for offences committed abroad or at an unknown location

1Where an of­fence was com­mit­ted abroad or if the place of com­mis­sion can­not be es­tab­lished, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the ac­cused is dom­i­ciled or ha­bitu­ally res­id­ent has jur­is­dic­tion to pro­sec­ute and ad­ju­dic­ate the of­fence.

2If the ac­cused is neither dom­i­ciled nor ha­bitu­ally res­id­ent in Switzer­land, the au­thor­it­ies at his or her place of ori­gin have jur­is­dic­tion; in the ab­sence of a place of ori­gin, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the ac­cused was found have jur­is­dic­tion.

3In the ab­sence of a place of jur­is­dic­tion in ac­cord­ance with para­graphs 1 and 2, au­thor­it­ies of the Can­ton re­quest­ing ex­tra­di­tion have jur­is­dic­tion.

Section 2 Special Jurisdiction

Art. 33 Place of jurisdiction in the case of two or more participants

1The par­ti­cipants in an of­fence shall be pro­sec­uted and ad­ju­dic­ated by the same au­thor­it­ies as the prin­cip­al of­fend­er.

2If an of­fence has been com­mit­ted by two or more co-of­fend­ers, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the ini­tial pro­sec­u­tion pro­ced­ures were car­ried out have jur­is­dic­tion.

Art. 34 Place of jurisdiction where two or more offences are committed at different loci

1Where an ac­cused has com­mit­ted two or more of­fences at dif­fer­ent loci, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the of­fence that car­ries the most severe pen­alty was com­mit­ted have jur­is­dic­tion to pro­sec­ute and ad­ju­dic­ate all of­fences. Where two or more of­fences carry the same pen­alty, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the ini­tial pro­sec­u­tion pro­ced­ures were car­ried out have jur­is­dic­tion.

2Where charges have already been brought in a par­ti­cipant can­ton in re­spect of one of the of­fences at the time of the pro­ced­ure to es­tab­lish jur­is­dic­tion in ac­cord­ance with Art­icles 39–42, the pro­ceed­ings shall be con­duc­ted sep­ar­ately.

3Where a per­son is sen­tenced by dif­fer­ent courts to two or more sim­il­ar pen­al­ties, the court that has im­posed the most severe pen­alty shall on ap­plic­a­tion im­pose a cu­mu­lat­ive sen­tence on the con­victed per­son.

Art. 35 Place of jurisdiction for offences via the media

1In the case of an of­fence un­der Art­icle 28 SCC1 com­mit­ted in Switzer­land, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the me­dia un­der­tak­ing has its re­gistered of­fice have jur­is­dic­tion.

2If the au­thor is known and if he or she is dom­i­ciled or ha­bitu­ally res­id­ent in Switzer­land, the au­thor­it­ies at the dom­i­cile or the place of ha­bitu­al res­id­ence have jur­is­dic­tion. In such a case, the pro­ceed­ings shall be con­duc­ted where the ini­tial pro­sec­u­tion pro­ced­ures were car­ried out. In the case of of­fences pro­sec­uted only on com­plaint, the com­plain­ant may choose between the two places of jur­is­dic­tion.

3Where no place of jur­is­dic­tion is es­tab­lished by para­graphs 1 or 2, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the me­dia product is broad­cast have jur­is­dic­tion. If broad­cast­ing takes place in two or more places, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the ini­tial pro­sec­u­tion pro­ced­ures were car­ried out have jur­is­dic­tion.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 36 Place of jurisdiction in the case of Debt Enforcement and Bankruptcy offences and criminal proceedings against corporate undertakings

1In the case of of­fences in ac­cord­ance with Art­icles 163–171bis SCC1, the au­thor­it­ies at the dom­i­cile, place of ha­bitu­al res­id­ence or re­gistered of­fice of the debt­or have jur­is­dic­tion re­spons­ible.

2For crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings against a cor­por­ate un­der­tak­ing in terms of Art­icle 102 SCC, the au­thor­it­ies at the re­gistered of­fice of the un­der­tak­ing have jur­is­dic­tion. The fore­go­ing also ap­plies if a per­son act­ing for the un­der­tak­ing is also be­ing pro­sec­uted for the same of­fence.

3In the ab­sence of a place of jur­is­dic­tion in ac­cord­ance with para­graphs 1 and 2, jur­is­dic­tion is es­tab­lished in ac­cord­ance with Art­icles 31–35.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 37 Place of jurisdiction for separate forfeiture proceedings

1Sep­ar­ate for­feit­ure pro­ceed­ings (Art. 376–378) must be car­ried out in the place where the items or as­sets to be for­feited are loc­ated.

2If the items or as­sets to be for­feited are loc­ated in two or more can­tons and if they are con­nec­ted to the same of­fence or of­fend­er, the au­thor­it­ies of the place where the for­feit­ure pro­ceed­ings were ini­ti­ated has jur­is­dic­tion.

Art. 38 Establishing an alternative place of jurisdiction

1The pub­lic pro­sec­utors may by mu­tu­al agree­ment es­tab­lish a place of jur­is­dic­tion oth­er than that provided for in Art­icles 31–37 if this is jus­ti­fied by the fo­cus of the crim­in­al activ­ity, the per­son­al cir­cum­stances of the ac­cused or oth­er just cause.

2In or­der to safe­guard the pro­ced­ur­al rights of a party, after charges have been filed, the can­ton­al ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity may on ap­plic­a­tion from that party or ex of­fi­cio trans­fer the ad­ju­dic­a­tion to an­oth­er court of first in­stance in the same can­ton with ma­ter­i­al jur­is­dic­tion in derog­a­tion from the rules on place of jur­is­dic­tion in this Chapter.

Section 3 Procedure for Establishing Jurisdiction

Art. 39 Verification of and agreement on jurisdiction

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall veri­fy their jur­is­dic­tion ex of­fi­cio and if ne­ces­sary trans­fer the case to the com­pet­ent au­thor­ity.

2Where two or more crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies have loc­al jur­is­dic­tion, the pub­lic pro­sec­utors con­cerned shall no­ti­fy each oth­er im­me­di­ately of the es­sen­tial ele­ments of the case and en­deav­our to reach agree­ment as soon as pos­sible.

Art. 40 Conflicts of jurisdiction

1In the event of a dis­pute over jur­is­dic­tion between crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies in the same can­ton, the Of­fice of the Chief Can­ton­al Pro­sec­utor or Can­ton­al At­tor­ney Gen­er­al shall make the fi­nal de­cision or, if there is no such of­fice, the can­ton­al ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity.

2In the event of a dis­pute over jur­is­dic­tion between crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies in dif­fer­ent can­tons, the pub­lic pro­sec­utor of the can­ton that was first to deal with the mat­ter shall sub­mit the is­sue im­me­di­ately, and in every case be­fore bring­ing charges, to the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court for de­cision.

3The au­thor­ity com­pet­ent to de­cide on the place of jur­is­dic­tion may spe­cify a place of jur­is­dic­tion oth­er than that provided for in Art­icles 31–37 if this is re­quired due to the fo­cus of the crim­in­al activ­ity or the per­son­al cir­cum­stances of the ac­cused or if there is oth­er just cause.

Art. 41 Contesting the place of jurisdiction

1If a party wishes to con­test the jur­is­dic­tion of the au­thor­ity con­duct­ing the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings, he or she must im­me­di­ately re­quest the au­thor­ity to trans­fer the case to the com­pet­ent crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity.

2The parties may file an ob­jec­tion with­in 10 days with the au­thor­ity re­spons­ible for the de­cision on the place of jur­is­dic­tion in terms of Art­icle 40 against the de­cision on the place of jur­is­dic­tion (Art. 39 para. 2) made by the pub­lic pro­sec­utors con­cerned. If the pub­lic pro­sec­utors have agreed on an al­tern­at­ive place of jur­is­dic­tion (Art. 38 para. 1), only the party whose re­quest un­der para­graph 1 is re­jec­ted has the right to file an ob­jec­tion.

Art. 42 Common provisions

1Un­til a bind­ing de­cision is made on the place of jur­is­dic­tion, the first au­thor­ity to deal with the case shall carry out any meas­ures that can­not be delayed. If ne­ces­sary the au­thor­ity re­spons­ible for the de­cision on the place of jur­is­dic­tion shall des­ig­nate the au­thor­ity that must pro­vi­sion­ally deal with the mat­ter.

2Per­sons who have been ar­res­ted shall only be trans­ferred to the au­thor­it­ies of oth­er can­tons when a bind­ing de­cision on jur­is­dic­tion has been made.

3A place of jur­is­dic­tion es­tab­lished in ac­cord­ance with Art­icles 38–41 may be changed only if good cause has sub­sequently aris­en be­fore charges have been brought.

Chapter 4 Domestic Mutual Assistance

Section 1 General Provisions

Art. 43 Scope of application and definition

1The pro­vi­sions this Chapter reg­u­late mu­tu­al as­sist­ance in crim­in­al mat­ters provided by fed­er­al and can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies to pub­lic pro­sec­utors, au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions and fed­er­al and can­ton­al courts.

2In re­la­tion to the po­lice, these pro­vi­sions ap­ply to the ex­tent that the po­lice are act­ing on in­struc­tions from pub­lic pro­sec­utors, au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions and courts.

3Dir­ect mu­tu­al as­sist­ance between po­lice au­thor­it­ies at fed­er­al and can­ton­al levels and between two or more can­ton­al po­lice au­thor­it­ies is per­mit­ted provided it does not re­late to com­puls­ory meas­ures that fall with­in the ex­clus­ive com­pet­ence of the pub­lic pro­sec­utor or the court.

4Mu­tu­al as­sist­ance is deemed to be any meas­ure re­ques­ted by an au­thor­ity with­in the scope of their com­pet­ence in on­go­ing crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 44 Obligation to provide mutual assistance

The fed­er­al and can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies are ob­liged to provide mu­tu­al as­sist­ance in re­spect of of­fences be­ing pro­sec­uted and ad­ju­dic­ated un­der fed­er­al law in ap­plic­a­tion of this Code.


1 The cor­rec­tion by the Fed­er­al As­sembly Draft­ing Com­mit­tee dated 10 Nov. 2014, pub­lished on 25 Nov. 2014 relates only to the French text (AS 2014 4071).

Art. 45 Support

1The can­tons shall, to the ex­tent that it is re­quired and pos­sible, provide the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies of the Con­fed­er­a­tion and oth­er can­tons with rooms in which to carry out their of­fi­cial du­ties and for the ac­com­mod­a­tion of per­sons de­tained pending the main hear­ing.

2At the re­quest of the fed­er­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies, the can­tons shall take the meas­ures re­quired to guar­an­tee the se­cur­ity of the of­fi­cial du­ties of these au­thor­it­ies.

Art. 46 Direct communication

1The au­thor­it­ies shall com­mu­nic­ate dir­ectly with each oth­er1.

2Re­quests for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance may be filed in the lan­guage of the re­quest­ing or the re­ques­ted au­thor­ity.

3If there is any un­cer­tainty as to which au­thor­ity has jur­is­dic­tion, the re­quest­ing au­thor­ity shall file the re­quest for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance with the highest pub­lic pro­sec­utor of the re­ques­ted Can­ton or of the Con­fed­er­a­tion. This ser­vice shall pass the re­quest on to the rel­ev­ant of­fice.


1 De­tails of the com­pet­ent loc­al Swiss justice au­thor­ity for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance re­quests may be ob­tained from the fol­low­ing web­site: www.elorge.ad­min.ch

Art. 47 Costs

1Mu­tu­al as­sist­ance is provided free of charge.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion shall re­im­burse the can­tons the costs of sup­port as defined in Art­icle 45 that it has caused them to in­cur.

3No­tice shall be giv­en to the re­quest­ing can­ton or the Con­fed­er­a­tion of any costs that have aris­en in or­der that they may be charged to the parties li­able to pay costs.

4The re­quest­ing can­ton or the Con­fed­er­a­tion shall bear any ob­lig­a­tions to pay dam­ages arising from mu­tu­al as­sist­ance meas­ures.

Art. 48 Disputes

1The ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity in the rel­ev­ant can­ton shall make a fi­nal de­cision on any dis­pute over mu­tu­al as­sist­ance between au­thor­it­ies of the same can­ton.

2The Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court de­cides on con­flicts between fed­er­al and can­ton­al au­thor­it­ies as well as between au­thor­it­ies of dif­fer­ent can­tons.

Section 2 Procedural Acts at the Request of the Confederation or of another Canton

Art. 49 Principles

1The fed­er­al and can­ton­al pub­lic pro­sec­utors and courts may re­quest the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies of oth­er can­tons or of the Con­fed­er­a­tion to carry out pro­ced­ur­al acts. The re­ques­ted au­thor­ity shall not ex­am­ine wheth­er the re­ques­ted pro­ced­ur­al acts are ad­miss­ible or equit­able.

2The au­thor­it­ies of the re­quest­ing Can­ton or of the Con­fed­er­a­tion have jur­is­dic­tion to hear ap­peals against mu­tu­al as­sist­ance meas­ures. Only the im­ple­ment­a­tion of the mu­tu­al as­sist­ance meas­ures may be con­tested be­fore the au­thor­it­ies of the re­ques­ted Can­ton or of the Con­fed­er­a­tion.

Art. 50 Request for compulsory measures

1The re­quest­ing au­thor­ity shall re­quest that a per­son be ar­res­ted with a writ­ten war­rant for an en­forced ap­pear­ance (Art. 208).

2If pos­sible, the re­ques­ted au­thor­ity shall hand over the ar­res­ted per­sons with­in 24 hours.

3Ap­plic­a­tions for oth­er com­puls­ory meas­ures must in­clude a brief no­tice of the grounds. In cases of ur­gency, no­tice of the grounds may be provided later.

Art. 51 Right to participate

1The parties, their leg­al agents and the re­quest­ing au­thor­ity may par­ti­cip­ate in the re­ques­ted pro­ced­ur­al acts, in­so­far as this Code provides there­for.

2If par­ti­cip­a­tion is pos­sible, the re­ques­ted au­thor­ity shall no­ti­fy the re­quest­ing au­thor­ity, the parties and their leg­al agents as to where and when the pro­ced­ur­al act will be car­ried out.

Section 3 Procedural Acts in another Canton

Art. 52 Principles

1Fed­er­al and can­ton­al pub­lic pro­sec­utors, au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions and courts are en­titled to or­der and carry out any of the pro­ced­ur­al acts spe­cified in this Code dir­ectly in an­oth­er can­ton.

2Pri­or no­tice shall be giv­en to the pub­lic pro­sec­utor of the can­ton in which the pro­ced­ur­al act is to be car­ried out. In cases of ur­gency, sub­sequent no­tice is pos­sible. No no­tice is re­quired for ob­tain­ing in­form­a­tion and for re­quest­ing the han­dover of files.

3The costs of the pro­ced­ur­al acts and any re­lated ob­lig­a­tions to pay dam­ages shall be borne by the Con­fed­er­a­tion or the can­ton car­ry­ing out the act; it may charge the costs to the parties in ac­cord­ance with Art­icles 426 and 427.

Art. 53 Using the services of the police

If the re­quest­ing au­thor­ity re­quires the sup­port of the po­lice in or­der to carry out a pro­ced­ur­al act, it shall make the rel­ev­ant re­quest to the pub­lic pro­sec­utor of the re­ques­ted Can­ton, which shall is­sue the ne­ces­sary in­struc­tions to the loc­al po­lice.

Chapter 5 International Mutual Assistance

Art. 54 Scope of Application of this Code

The pro­vi­sion of in­ter­na­tion­al mu­tu­al as­sist­ance and the mu­tu­al as­sist­ance pro­ceed­ings are gov­erned by this Code only to the ex­tent that oth­er fed­er­al acts and in­ter­na­tion­al agree­ments make no pro­vi­sion there­for.

Art. 55 Jurisdiction

1Where a can­ton is in­volved in a case of in­ter­na­tion­al mu­tu­al as­sist­ance, the pub­lic pro­sec­utor has jur­is­dic­tion.

2Dur­ing the main hear­ing, the courts may them­selves sub­mit re­quests for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance.

3The powers of the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for the ex­e­cu­tion of sen­tences and meas­ures are re­served.

4Where fed­er­al law as­signs mu­tu­al as­sist­ance du­ties to a ju­di­cial au­thor­ity, the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity has jur­is­dic­tion.

5Where a can­ton deal­ing with a re­quest for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance from abroad car­ries out pro­ced­ur­al acts in oth­er can­tons, the pro­vi­sions on do­mest­ic mu­tu­al as­sist­ance ap­ply.

6The can­tons shall reg­u­late any ad­di­tion­al pro­ced­ures.

Chapter 6 Recusal

Art. 56 Grounds for recusal

A per­son act­ing for a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity shall re­cuse him- or her­self if he or she:

a.
has a per­son­al in­terest in the case;
b.
has ac­ted in an­oth­er ca­pa­city in the same case, and in par­tic­u­lar as a mem­ber of an au­thor­ity, as the leg­al agent for a party, as an ex­pert wit­ness, or as a wit­ness;
c.
is mar­ried to, or liv­ing in a re­gistered part­ner­ship or co­hab­it­ing with a party, his or her leg­al agent or a per­son who has ac­ted as a mem­ber of the lower court;
d.
is re­lated to a party by birth or by mar­riage dir­ectly or col­lat­er­ally up to and in­clud­ing the third de­gree;
e.
is re­lated to the leg­al agent of a party or of a per­son who ac­ted in the same case as a mem­ber of the lower court dir­ectly or col­lat­er­ally up to and in­clud­ing the second de­gree;
f.
may not be im­par­tial for oth­er reas­ons, in par­tic­u­lar due to friend­ship or enmity with a party or his or her leg­al agent.

Art. 57 Duty to notify

Where a per­son act­ing for a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity has grounds for re­cus­al, that per­son shall no­ti­fy the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings in good time.

Art. 58 Recusal request by a party

1If a party re­quests that a per­son act­ing for a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity be re­cuse him- or her­self, the party must sub­mit the rel­ev­ant ap­plic­a­tion to the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings as soon as he or she be­comes aware of the grounds for re­cus­al; the cir­cum­stances jus­ti­fy­ing re­cus­al must be cred­ibly sub­stan­ti­ated.

2The per­son con­cerned shall re­spond to the ap­plic­a­tion.

Art. 59 Decision

1If grounds for re­cus­al in terms of Art­icle 56 let­ter a or f are claimed or if a per­son act­ing for a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity op­poses a party ap­plic­a­tion for re­cus­al based on Art­icle 56 let­ters b–e, the fol­low­ing au­thor­it­ies shall is­sue a fi­nal de­cision without tak­ing ad­di­tion­al evid­ence:

a.
the pub­lic pro­sec­utor if mat­ter relates to the po­lice;
b.
the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity if the mat­ter relates to the pub­lic pro­sec­utor, the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions or the courts of first in­stance;
c.
the court of ap­peal if the mat­ter relates to the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity or in­di­vidu­al mem­bers of the court of ap­peal;
d.1
the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court if the mat­ter relates to an en­tire can­ton­al court of ap­peal.

2The de­cision shall be is­sued in writ­ing and with a state­ment of reas­ons.

3Un­til the de­cision is is­sued, the per­son con­cerned shall con­tin­ue to ex­er­cise his of­fice.

4If the ap­plic­a­tion is ap­proved, the pro­ced­ur­al costs are borne by the Con­fed­er­a­tion or the can­ton. If it is re­jec­ted or was clearly sub­mit­ted too late or vex­a­tious, the costs are borne by the ap­plic­ant.


1 Amended by No II 3 of the FA of 17 March 2017 (Cre­ation of an Ap­peals Cham­ber in the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court), in force since 1 Jan. 2019 (AS 2017 5769; BBl 2013 7109, 2016 6199).

Art. 60 Consequences of violating the recusal regulations

1Where a per­son sub­ject to re­cus­al has par­ti­cip­ated in of­fi­cial acts, these acts must be an­nulled and re­peated if so re­ques­ted by a party with­in 5 days of be­com­ing aware of the de­cision on re­cus­al.

2Evid­ence that can­not be taken again may be taken in­to con­sid­er­a­tion by the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity.

3If the ground for re­cus­al comes to light only after con­clu­sion of the pro­ceed­ings, the pro­vi­sions on the re­view of cases ap­ply.

Chapter 7 Director of Proceedings

Art. 61 Jurisdiction

The per­sons re­spons­ible for dir­ect­ing the pro­ceed­ings are:

a.
un­til pro­ceed­ings are aban­doned or charges are brought: the pub­lic pro­sec­utor;
b.
in con­tra­ven­tion pro­ceed­ings: the au­thor­ity re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions;
c.
in court pro­ceed­ings be­fore two or more judges: the pres­id­ent of the court con­cerned;
d.
in court pro­ceed­ings be­fore one judge sit­ting alone: the judge.

Art. 62 General duties

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings makes the ar­range­ments re­quired to guar­an­tee the law­ful and or­derly con­duct of the pro­ceed­ings.

2In court pro­ceed­ings be­fore two or more judges, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings holds all the powers that are not re­served to the court.

Art. 63 Measures to ensure order in court

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall en­sure se­cur­ity, quiet and or­der dur­ing the hear­ings.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may warn any per­son who dis­rupts the hear­ings or breaches the rules of re­spect­able be­ha­viour. In the event of any re­pe­ti­tion, he or she may deny them the right to speak, or­der them to leave the court and if ne­ces­sary have them held in po­lice cus­tody un­til the con­clu­sion of the hear­ing. He or she may or­der that the court be cleared.

3The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may re­quest the as­sist­ance of the po­lice at the place where the pro­ceed­ings are be­ing held.

4If a party is ex­cluded from the court, the pro­ceed­ings shall nev­er­the­less be con­tin­ued.

Art. 64 Disciplinary measures

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may or­der a per­son who dis­rupts the hear­ings, breaches the rules of re­spect­able be­ha­viour or dis­reg­ards pro­ced­ur­al or­ders to pay a fixed pen­alty fine of up to 1000 francs.

2Fixed pen­alty fines im­posed by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the courts of first in­stance may be chal­lenged be­fore the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity with­in 10 days. Its de­cision is fi­nal.

Art. 65 Right of appeal against procedural orders issued by the court

1Pro­ced­ur­al or­ders is­sued by the court may only be chal­lenged when the fi­nal judg­ment is is­sued.

2If the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings in a court with two or more judges has is­sued pro­ced­ur­al or­ders be­fore the main hear­ing, the court may amend or re­voke such or­ders ex of­fi­cio or on re­quest.

Chapter 8 General Procedural Regulations

Section 1 Requirement of Oral Proceedings; Language

Art. 66 Requirement of oral proceedings

Pro­ceed­ings be­fore the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall be con­duc­ted or­ally un­less this Code provides for writ­ten pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 67 Language of the proceedings

1The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall de­term­ine the lan­guages to be used by their crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies in pro­ceed­ings.

2The can­ton­al crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall carry out all pro­ced­ur­al acts in the lan­guages that they use in pro­ceed­ings; the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may per­mit ex­cep­tions.

Art. 68 Translation and interpretation

1Where a party to the pro­ceed­ings does not un­der­stand the lan­guage of the pro­ceed­ings or is un­able to ex­press him- or her­self ad­equately, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall ap­point an in­ter­pret­er. In minor or ur­gent cases, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may, if the per­son con­cerned con­sents, dis­pense with ap­point­ing an in­ter­pret­er provided the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings and the clerk of court have an ad­equate com­mand of the for­eign lan­guage con­cerned.

2Even if he or she has a de­fence law­yer, the ac­cused shall be no­ti­fied in a lan­guage that he or she un­der­stands, either or­ally or in writ­ing, of at least the es­sen­tial con­tent of the most im­port­ant pro­ced­ur­al acts. There is no right to have all pro­ced­ur­al acts and files trans­lated in full.

3Files that are not sub­mis­sions made by parties shall, if re­quired, be trans­lated in writ­ing or or­ally trans­lated for the re­cord of pro­ceed­ings.

4A per­son of the same sex must be ap­poin­ted to trans­late ques­tions to be put to the vic­tim of a sexu­al of­fence where the vic­tim so re­quests and it is pos­sible without caus­ing an un­reas­on­able delay to the pro­ceed­ings.

5The pro­vi­sions on ex­pert wit­nesses (Art. 73, 105, 182–191) ap­ply mu­tatis mutandis to trans­lat­ors and in­ter­pret­ers.

Section 2 Public Proceedings

Art. 69 Principles

1Pro­ceed­ings be­fore the court of first in­stance and the court of ap­peal, to­geth­er with the or­al passing of judg­ments and de­crees of these courts shall, with the ex­cep­tion of the judges' de­lib­er­a­tions, be con­duc­ted in pub­lic.

2If the parties to such cases have waived their right to the pub­lic passing of judg­ment, or if a sum­mary pen­alty or­der is is­sued, in­ter­ested per­sons may in­spect the judg­ments and sum­mary pen­alty or­ders.

3The fol­low­ing pro­ceed­ings are not con­duc­ted in pub­lic:

a.
pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings, with the ex­cep­tion of pub­lic an­nounce­ments made by the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies;
b.
pro­ceed­ings be­fore the com­puls­ory meas­ures court;
c.
pro­ceed­ings be­fore the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity and, in cases where they are con­duc­ted in writ­ing, be­fore the court of ap­peal;
d.
sum­mary pen­alty or­der pro­ceed­ings.

4Pub­lic hear­ings are open to all mem­bers of the pub­lic; however, per­sons un­der 16 years of age shall only be ad­mit­ted with the per­mis­sion of the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 70 Restrictions on and exclusion of public access

1The court may com­pletely or partly ex­clude mem­bers of the pub­lic from court hear­ings if:

a.
pub­lic safety or or­der or the le­git­im­ate in­terests of a per­son in­volved, and in par­tic­u­lar the vic­tim, so re­quire;
b.
too many mem­bers of the pub­lic wish ac­cess to the court.

2If mem­bers of the pub­lic are ex­cluded, the ac­cused, the vic­tim and private claimants may each be ac­com­pan­ied by a max­im­um of three con­fid­ants.

3Sub­ject to spe­cif­ic re­quire­ments, the court may al­low court re­port­ers and ad­di­tion­al per­sons with a le­git­im­ate in­terest ac­cess to pro­ceed­ings that are private in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 1.

4If mem­bers of the pub­lic are ex­cluded, the court shall pass judge­ment at a pub­lic hear­ing or shall if re­quired in­form the pub­lic of the out­come of the pro­ceed­ings in an­oth­er suit­able man­ner.

Art. 71 Video and audio recordings

1It is not per­mit­ted to make video or au­dio re­cord­ings with­in the court build­ing or to make such re­cord­ings of pro­ced­ur­al acts car­ried out out­side the court build­ing.

2Per­sons in­fringing the fore­go­ing para­graph may be li­able to a fixed pen­alty fine in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 64 para­graph 1. Un­au­thor­ised re­cord­ings may be con­fis­cated.

Art. 72 Court reporting

The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may reg­u­late the ac­cred­it­a­tion and rights and ob­lig­a­tions of court re­port­ers.

Section 3 Confidentiality, Information to the Public, Communications to Authorities

Art. 73 Duty of confidentiality

1Mem­bers of crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies, their em­ploy­ees and ex­perts ap­poin­ted by crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall treat as con­fid­en­tial in­form­a­tion that comes to their know­ledge in the ex­er­cise of their of­fi­cial du­ties.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may re­quire private claimants and oth­er per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings and their leg­al agents, un­der cau­tion as to Art­icle 292 SCC1, to main­tain con­fid­en­ti­al­ity with re­gard to the pro­ceed­ings and the per­sons con­cerned if the ob­ject of the pro­ceed­ings or a private in­terest so re­quires. A time lim­it must be placed on this ob­lig­a­tion.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 74 Information to the public

1The pub­lic pro­sec­utor, the courts and, with the con­sent of the courts, the po­lice may provide the pub­lic with in­form­a­tion on pending pro­ceed­ings where this is re­quired:

a.
so that the pub­lic may as­sist in en­quir­ies in­to of­fences or in loc­at­ing sus­pects;
b.
to warn or re­as­sure the pub­lic;
c.
to cor­rect in­ac­cur­ate re­ports or ru­mours;
d.
due to the spe­cial im­port­ance of a case.

2The po­lice may also in­form the pub­lic on their own ini­ti­at­ive about ac­ci­dents and of­fences without nam­ing the per­sons in­volved.

3When provid­ing in­form­a­tion to the pub­lic, the pre­sump­tion of in­no­cence and the per­son­al pri­vacy of the per­sons con­cerned must be ob­served.

4In cases in­volving a vic­tim, au­thor­it­ies and private in­di­vidu­als may only identi­fy the vic­tim or provide in­form­a­tion that en­ables his or her iden­ti­fic­a­tion out­side pub­lic court pro­ceed­ings if:

a.
the as­sist­ance of the pub­lic in en­quir­ies in­to a felony or in tra­cing sus­pects is re­quired; or
b.
the vic­tim or his or her sur­viv­ors con­sent.

Art. 75 Communications with other authorities

1Where an ac­cused is serving a sen­tence or sub­ject to a crim­in­al meas­ure, the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall in­form the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for the ex­e­cu­tion of sen­tences or meas­ures of any new crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings and any de­cisions is­sued.

2The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall in­form the so­cial ser­vices and child and adult pro­tec­tion au­thor­it­ies of any crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings that have been ini­ti­ated and of any de­cisions in crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings if this is re­quired for the pro­tec­tion of an ac­cused or a per­son suf­fer­ing harm or his or her next-of-kin.1

3If they es­tab­lish in the pro­sec­u­tion of of­fences in which minors are in­volved that fur­ther meas­ures are re­quired, they shall in­form the child pro­tec­tion au­thor­it­ies im­me­di­ately.2

3bisThe dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall no­ti­fy the De­fence Group of pending crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings against mem­bers of the armed forces or po­ten­tial con­scripts if there are ser­i­ous in­dic­a­tions or oth­er evid­ence that the per­son con­cerned could use a fire­arm to harm them­selves or oth­er per­sons.3

4The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may re­quire or au­thor­ise the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies to make fur­ther com­mu­nic­a­tions to au­thor­it­ies.


1 Amended by An­nex No 2 of the FA of 15 Dec. 2017 (Child Pro­tec­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2019 (AS 2018 2947; BBl 2015 3431).
2 Amended by An­nex No 2 of the FA of 15 Dec. 2017 (Child Pro­tec­tion), in force since 1 Jan. 2019 (AS 2018 2947; BBl 2015 3431).
3 In­ser­ted by No I 2 of the FA of 25 Sept. 2015 on Im­prov­ing the Ex­change of In­form­a­tion between Au­thor­it­ies in re­la­tion to Weapons, (AS 2016 1831; BBl 2014 303). Amended by An­nex No 3 of the FA of 18 March 2016, in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (AS 2016 4277, 2017 2297; BBl 2014 6955).

Section 4 Records

Art. 76 General Provisions

1The state­ments of the parties, the or­al de­cisions of the au­thor­it­ies and any oth­er pro­ced­ur­al acts that are not car­ried out in writ­ing shall be re­cor­ded.

2The clerk of court, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings and, where ap­plic­able, the in­ter­pret­er or trans­lat­or shall con­firm the ac­cur­acy of the re­cord.

3The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings is re­spons­ible for en­sur­ing that pro­ced­ur­al acts are com­pletely and cor­rectly re­cor­ded.

4He or she may or­der that an au­dio or video re­cord­ing of all or part of a pro­ced­ur­al act be made, in ad­di­tion to its be­ing re­cor­ded in writ­ing. He or she shall give those present ad­vance no­tice of such a re­cord­ing.

Art. 77 Records of proceedings

The re­cords of pro­ceed­ings con­tain de­tails of all the es­sen­tial pro­ced­ur­al acts and in par­tic­u­lar provide in­form­a­tion on:

a.
the nature, place, date and time of the pro­ced­ur­al acts;
b.
the names of the par­ti­cipant mem­bers of au­thor­it­ies, the parties, their leg­al agents and any oth­er per­sons present;
c.
the ap­plic­a­tions of the parties;
d.
the cau­tion giv­en re­gard­ing the rights and ob­lig­a­tions of the per­sons ex­amined;
e.
the state­ments made by the per­sons ex­amined;
f.
the course of events in the pro­ceed­ings, the in­struc­tions giv­en by the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity and com­pli­ance with the form­al re­quire­ments for the in­di­vidu­al pro­ced­ur­al acts;
g.
the files and oth­er evid­ence sub­mit­ted by the per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings or oth­er­wise pro­duced in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings;
h.
the de­cisions and the grounds there­for, un­less these are sep­ar­ately in­cluded in the files.

Art. 78 Records of hearings

1The state­ments of the parties, wit­nesses, per­sons provid­ing in­form­a­tion and ex­pert wit­nesses shall be re­cor­ded as they are made.

2The re­cord is made in the lan­guage of the pro­ceed­ings, but im­port­ant state­ments must if pos­sible be re­cor­ded in the lan­guage in which the per­son ex­amined makes them.

3De­cis­ive ques­tions and an­swers shall be re­cor­ded ver­batim.

4The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may per­mit the per­son ex­amined to dic­tate his or her own state­ments.

5On con­clu­sion of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing, the re­cord shall be read out to the per­son ex­amined or giv­en to him or her to read. Once aware of its con­tent, the per­son ex­amined must sign the re­cord and ini­tial each page. If he or she re­fuses to read or sign the re­cord, the re­fus­al and reas­ons giv­en for do­ing so shall be noted in the re­cord.

5bisIf the ex­am­in­a­tion in the main hear­ing is re­cor­ded us­ing tech­nic­al aids, the court may dis­pense with read­ing the tran­script back to the per­son ex­amined and or giv­ing that per­son the tran­script to read and sign. The re­cord­ings are placed in the case files.1

6In the case of hear­ings by means of video con­fer­ence, the per­son ex­amined shall make an or­al de­clar­a­tion that he or she un­der­stands the con­tent of the re­cord in­stead of sign­ing and ini­tial­ling the same. The de­clar­a­tion shall be noted in the re­cord.

7If re­cords writ­ten by hand are not eas­ily legible or if the state­ments have been re­cor­ded in short­hand, a legible copy shall be pre­pared im­me­di­ately. Notes shall be pre­served un­til the con­clu­sion of the pro­ceed­ings.2


1 In­ser­ted by No I 2 of the FA of 28 Sept. 2012 (Tran­scrip­tion Reg­u­la­tions), in force since 1 May 2013 (AS 2013 851; BBl 2012 5707 5719).
2 Amended by No I 2 of the FA of 28 Sept. 2012 (Tran­scrip­tion Reg­u­la­tions), in force since 1 May 2013 (AS 2013 851; BBl 2012 5707 5719).

Art. 79 Corrections

1Ob­vi­ous er­rors shall be cor­rec­ted by the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings and the clerk of court; the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall there­after no­ti­fy the parties of the cor­rec­tions.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall de­cide on re­quests to have the re­cords cor­rec­ted.

3Cor­rec­tions, al­ter­a­tions, de­le­tions and ad­di­tions shall be cer­ti­fied by the clerk of court and the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings. Any al­ter­a­tions to the con­tent shall be made in such a man­ner that the ori­gin­al re­cord re­mains re­cog­nis­able.

Section 5 Decisions

Art. 80 Form

1De­cisions that de­term­ine sub­stant­ive crim­in­al or civil is­sues are is­sued in the form of a judg­ment. Oth­er de­cisions, if made by a ju­di­cial au­thor­ity com­pris­ing two or more mem­bers, are is­sued in the form of a de­cree, or if they are made by a single per­son, in the form of a rul­ing. The pro­vi­sions on sum­mary pen­alty or­der pro­ced­ures are re­served.

2De­cisions are is­sued in writ­ing and con­tain a state­ment of the grounds. They are signed by the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings and the clerk of court and are served on the parties.

3Simple pro­ced­ur­al de­crees and rul­ings do not re­quire to be is­sued in any spe­cif­ic form or to con­tain a state­ment of grounds; they are noted in the case re­cords and no­ti­fied to the parties in a suit­able man­ner.

Art. 81 Content of final judgments

1Judg­ments and oth­er de­cisions con­clud­ing pro­ceed­ings con­tain:

a.
an in­tro­duc­tion;
b.
a state­ment of the grounds;
c.
con­clu­sions;
d.
if sub­ject to ap­peal: in­struc­tions on ap­pel­late rem­ed­ies.

2The in­tro­duc­tion con­tains:

a.
de­tails of the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity and its mem­bers who par­ti­cip­ated in mak­ing the de­cision;
b.
the date of the de­cision;
c.
suf­fi­cient de­tails of the parties and of their leg­al agents;
d.
in the case of judg­ments, the fi­nal sub­mis­sions made by the parties.

3The state­ment of the grounds con­tains:

a.
in the case of judg­ments: an ap­prais­al of the fac­tu­al and leg­al is­sues re­lat­ing to the con­duct in­crim­in­at­ing the ac­cused, and an ex­plan­a­tion of why any sanc­tions, in­cid­ent­al leg­al or­ders and costs or dam­ages were im­posed;
b.
in the case of oth­er de­cisions con­clud­ing pro­ceed­ings: the reas­ons for con­clud­ing the pro­ceed­ings.

4The con­clu­sions con­tain:

a.
de­tails of the stat­utory pro­vi­sions;
b.
in the case of judg­ments: the ver­dict and de­cisions on re­lated sanc­tions, costs and dam­ages and any civil claims;
c.
in the case of oth­er de­cisions con­clud­ing pro­ceed­ings: the or­der con­clud­ing the pro­ceed­ings;
d.
the sub­sequent de­cisions of the court;
e.
the de­cision on the in­cid­ent­al leg­al or­ders;
f.
the de­tails of the per­sons and au­thor­it­ies who are to re­ceive a copy of the de­cision or of the con­clu­sions.

Art. 82 Limitations to the duty to state grounds

1The court of first in­stance shall dis­pense with a writ­ten state­ment of the grounds if it:

a.
states the grounds for the judg­ment or­ally; and
b.
it does not im­pose a cus­todi­al sen­tence of more than two years, in­def­in­ite in­car­cer­a­tion un­der Art­icle 64 SCC1, treat­ment in terms of Art­icle 59 para­graph 3 SCC or, in the case of sus­pen­ded sanc­tions to be re­voked sim­ul­tan­eously, a depriva­tion of liberty of more than two years.

2The court shall provide the parties ret­ro­spect­ively with a writ­ten judg­ment stat­ing the grounds if:

a.
a party re­quests the same with­in 10 days of ser­vice of the con­clu­sions;
b.
a party files an ap­peal.

3If it is only the private claimant who re­quests a writ­ten judg­ment stat­ing the grounds or who ap­peals, the court shall provide a state­ment of grounds only to the ex­tent that this relates to the crim­in­al con­duct to the pre­ju­dice of the private claimant and to his or her civil claims.

4In the ap­pel­late pro­ceed­ings, the court may refer to the grounds stated by the lower court in its ap­prais­al of the fac­tu­al and the leg­al is­sues in the case.


1 SR 311.0

Art. 83 Explanation and correction of decisions

1If the con­clu­sions to the de­cision are un­clear, con­tra­dict­ory or in­com­plete, or if they are in­con­sist­ent with the grounds, the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity that made the de­cision shall ex­plain or cor­rect the de­cision on the ap­plic­a­tion of a party or on its own ini­ti­at­ive.

2The ap­plic­a­tion must be sub­mit­ted in writ­ing, in­dic­at­ing the mat­ters that are con­tested or the amend­ment that are re­ques­ted.

3The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity shall al­low the oth­er parties the op­por­tun­ity to com­ment on the ap­plic­a­tion.

4No­tice of the ex­plan­a­tion for or cor­rec­tions to the de­cision shall be giv­en to the parties.

Section 6 Notice and Service of Decisions

Art. 84 Notice of decisions

1If the pro­ceed­ings are pub­lic, the court shall give no­tice of the judg­ment or­ally on con­clu­sion of its de­lib­er­a­tions and state the grounds in brief.

2The court shall provide the parties with a writ­ten copy of the con­clu­sions at the end of the main hear­ing or serve it on the parties with­in 5 days.

3If the court is un­able to is­sue the judg­ment im­me­di­ately, it shall do so as soon as pos­sible and give no­tice of the judg­ment in re­arranged main hear­ing. If in such an event the parties waive their right to have the judg­ment is­sued pub­licly, the court shall serve the con­clu­sions of the judg­ment on them im­me­di­ately after it has been reached.

4If the court has to state grounds for the judg­ment, it shall serve the judg­ment with a full state­ment of grounds on the ac­cused and the pub­lic pro­sec­utor with­in 60 days, or by way of ex­cep­tion 90 days. The oth­er parties shall be served only with those parts of the judg­ment in which their ap­plic­a­tions are men­tioned.

5The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity shall give no­tice of simple pro­ced­ur­al de­crees or rul­ings to the parties in writ­ing or or­ally.

6No­tice of de­cisions shall be giv­en to oth­er au­thor­it­ies in ac­cord­ance with fed­er­al and can­ton­al law, no­tice of ap­peal de­cisions shall also be giv­en to the lower court, and no­tice of leg­ally bind­ing de­cisions shall if ne­ces­sary be giv­en to the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for the ex­e­cu­tion of sen­tences and meas­ures and to the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for the re­gister of con­vic­tions.

Art. 85 Form and service of communications

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall is­sue com­mu­nic­a­tions in writ­ing, un­less this Code provides oth­er­wise.

2Ser­vice shall be ef­fected by re­gistered mail or in any oth­er way provided con­firm­a­tion of re­ceipt is ob­tained, and in par­tic­u­lar by per­son­al ser­vice by the po­lice

3It is ef­fected if the de­liv­ery is ac­cep­ted by ad­dress­ee or by an em­ploy­ee there­of or a per­son liv­ing in the same house­hold who is at least 16 years old, un­less the law en­force­ment au­thor­ity has in­struc­ted that de­liv­ery be made to the ad­dress­ee in per­son.

4It is also deemed to be ef­fected:

a.
in the case of a de­liv­ery by re­gistered mail that is not col­lec­ted: on the sev­enth day fol­low­ing the un­suc­cess­ful at­tempt at ser­vice, provided the per­son is ex­pect­ing the de­liv­ery;
b.
in the case of per­son­al ser­vice, if the ad­dress­ee re­fuses to ac­cept ser­vice and this is re­cor­ded by the mes­sen­ger: on the day of re­fus­al.

Art. 86 Electronic service

1With the con­sent of the per­son con­cerned, com­mu­nic­a­tions may be served elec­tron­ic­ally. They must bear an elec­tron­ic sig­na­ture in ac­cord­ance with the Fed­er­al Act of 18 March 20162 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures.

2The Fed­er­al Coun­cil shall reg­u­late:

a.
the sig­na­ture to be used;
b.
the format for com­mu­nic­a­tions and their at­tach­ments;
c.
the meth­od of trans­mis­sion;
d.
the point in time at which the com­mu­nic­a­tion is deemed to have been served.

1 Amended by An­nex No II 7 of the FA of 18 March 2016 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2016 4651; BBl 2014 1001).
2 SR 943.03

Art. 87 Address for service

1Com­mu­nic­a­tions must be served on ad­dress­ees at their dom­i­cile, their ha­bitu­al place of res­id­ence or their re­gistered of­fice.

2Parties and leg­al agents whose dom­i­cile, ha­bitu­al place of res­id­ence or re­gistered of­fice is abroad must provide an ad­dress for ser­vice in Switzer­land; pro­vi­sions of in­ter­na­tion­al agree­ments un­der which com­mu­nic­a­tions may be served dir­ectly are re­served.

3Com­mu­nic­a­tions ad­dress to parties who have ap­poin­ted a leg­al agent are val­idly served if sent to the agent.

4Where a party is re­quired to ap­pear per­son­ally at a hear­ing or must per­son­ally carry out a pro­ced­ur­al act, the re­lated com­mu­nic­a­tion shall be served dir­ectly on that party. A copy shall be sent to the leg­al agent.

Art. 88 Public notice

1Ser­vice shall be ef­fected by pub­lic­a­tion in an of­fi­cial gaz­ette des­ig­nated by the Con­fed­er­a­tion or the can­ton where:

a.
the where­abouts of the ad­dress­ee are un­known and can­not be as­cer­tained des­pite mak­ing reas­on­able en­quir­ies;
b.
ser­vice is im­possible or would lead to ex­cep­tion­al in­con­veni­ence;
c.
a party or his or her leg­al agent with dom­i­cile, ha­bitu­al res­id­ence or re­gistered of­fice abroad has failed to provide an ad­dress for ser­vice in Switzer­land.

2Ser­vice is deemed to be ef­fected on the day of pub­lic­a­tion.

3In the case of fi­nal judg­ments, only the con­clu­sions of the judg­ment shall be pub­lished.

4De­cisions to take no pro­ceed­ings and sum­mary pen­alty or­ders are deemed to be served without pub­lic­a­tion be­ing re­quired.

Section 7 Time Limits and Deadlines

Art. 89 General Provisions

1Stat­utory time lim­its may not be ex­ten­ded.

2There are no court hol­i­days in crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 90 Commencement and calculation of time limits

1Time lim­its that are triggered by a com­mu­nic­a­tion or the oc­cur­rence of an event be­gin to run from the fol­low­ing day.

2If the time lim­it is due to ex­pire on a Sat­urday, a Sunday or a pub­lic hol­i­day re­cog­nised un­der fed­er­al or can­ton­al law, it shall ex­pire on the next work­ing day. The mat­ter shall be de­term­ined by the law of the can­ton in which the party or his or her leg­al agent is res­id­ent or has its re­gistered of­fice.1


1 Amended by An­nex No II 7 of the Crim­in­al Justice Au­thor­it­ies Act of 19 March 2010, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2010 3267; BBl 2008 8125).

Art. 91 Compliance with time limits

1The time lim­it is com­plied with if the pro­ced­ur­al act is car­ried out to the sat­is­fac­tion of the com­pet­ent au­thor­ity on the day of ex­piry at the latest.

2 Sub­mis­sions must be de­livered on the day of ex­piry of the time lim­it at the latest to the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity or handed for de­liv­ery to Swis­s­Post, a Swiss dip­lo­mat­ic or con­su­lar rep­res­ent­a­tion or, in the case of per­sons in cus­tody, the gov­ernor of the in­sti­tu­tion.

3In case of elec­tron­ic sub­mis­sion, the rel­ev­ant time for com­pli­ance with a time lim­it is that at which the re­ceipt is is­sued that con­firms that all the steps have been com­pleted that the party must carry out for trans­mis­sion.1

4The time lim­it is also deemed to be com­plied with if the sub­mis­sion is re­ceived by a Swiss au­thor­ity not com­pet­ent in the mat­ter on the day of ex­piry at the latest. This au­thor­ity shall pass the sub­mis­sion on im­me­di­ately to the com­pet­ent crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity.

5The time lim­it for mak­ing a pay­ment to a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity is com­plied with if the amount due is handed to Swis­s­Post or is deb­ited from a postal or bank ac­count in Switzer­land in fa­vour of the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity on the day of ex­piry at the latest.


1 Amended by An­nex No II 7 of the FA of 18 March 2016 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2016 4651; BBl 2014 1001).

Art. 92 Extension of time limits and postponement of hearings

The au­thor­it­ies may ex­tend time lim­its and post­pone hear­ings ex of­fi­cio or in re­sponse to an ap­plic­a­tion. The ap­plic­a­tion must be made be­fore the ex­piry of the time lim­it and be ad­equately jus­ti­fied.

Art. 93 Default

A party is in de­fault if he or she fails to carry out a pro­ced­ur­al act in time or fails to ap­pear for a hear­ing.

Art. 94 New time limit

1Where a party has failed to com­ply with a time lim­it and has thus in­curred a sig­ni­fic­ant and ir­re­medi­able loss of rights, he or she may re­quest that a new time lim­it be fixed; in do­ing so he or she must cred­ibly show that he or she was not at fault for the fail­ure to com­ply with the time lim­it.

2The ap­plic­a­tion must be made in writ­ing with a state­ment of reas­ons and sub­mit­ted with­in 30 days of the reas­on for de­fault ceas­ing to ap­ply to the au­thor­ity be­fore which the rel­ev­ant pro­ced­ur­al act should have been car­ried out. The rel­ev­ant pro­ced­ur­al act must be car­ried out with­in the same time lim­it.

3The ap­plic­a­tion only has sus­pens­ive ef­fect if the com­pet­ent au­thor­ity grants the same.

4The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity shall de­cide on the ap­plic­a­tion in writ­ten pro­ceed­ings.

5Para­graphs 1–4 ap­ply mu­tatis mutandis in the event of fail­ure to at­tend a hear­ing. If a new hear­ing is gran­ted, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall fix a new date. The pro­vi­sions on pro­ceed­ings in ab­sen­tia are re­served.

Section 8 Data Processing

Art. 95 Obtaining personal data

1Per­son­al data must be ob­tained from the per­son con­cerned or with that per­son's know­ledge un­less the pro­ceed­ings would be oth­er­wise be pre­ju­diced or un­reas­on­able in­con­veni­ence or ex­pense would be in­curred.

2If per­son­al data is ob­tained without the know­ledge of the per­son con­cerned, that per­son must be no­ti­fied there­of im­me­di­ately. Where over­rid­ing pub­lic or private in­terests so re­quire, no­ti­fic­a­tion may be dis­pensed with or post­poned.

Art. 95a Processing of personal data

When pro­cessing per­son­al data, the com­pet­ent crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall en­sure that they make a dis­tinc­tion, as far as pos­sible:

a.
between the dif­fer­ent cat­egor­ies of data sub­jects;
b.
between per­son­al data based on facts and per­son­al data based on per­son­al as­sess­ments.

1 In­ser­ted by No II 3 of the FA of 28 Sept. 2018 on the im­ple­ment­a­tion of Dir­ect­ive (EU) 2016/680 on the pro­tec­tion of nat­ur­al per­sons with re­gard to the pro­cessing of per­son­al data by com­pet­ent au­thor­it­ies for the pur­poses of the pre­ven­tion, in­vest­ig­a­tion, de­tec­tion or pro­sec­u­tion of crim­in­al of­fences or the ex­e­cu­tion of crim­in­al pen­al­ties, in force since 1 March 2019 (AS 2019 625; BBl 2017 6941).

Art. 96 Disclosure and use in pending criminal proceedings

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity may dis­close per­son­al data from pending pro­ceed­ings for use in oth­er pending pro­ceed­ings if it is an­ti­cip­ated that the data may provide es­sen­tial in­form­a­tion.

2The fore­go­ing para­graph does not ap­ply to:

a.
Art­icles 11, 13, 14 and 20 of the Fed­er­al Act of 21 March 19971 on Meas­ures to Safe­guard In­tern­al Se­cur­ity;
b.
the reg­u­la­tions of the Fed­er­al Act of 13 June 20082 on the Fed­er­al Po­lice In­form­a­tion Sys­tems;
c.
the reg­u­la­tions of the Fed­er­al Act of 7 Oc­to­ber 19943 on the Cent­ral Of­fices of the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Po­lice.4

1 SR 120
2 SR 361
3 SR 360
4 Amended by An­nex 2 No I 1 let. a of the FA of 13 June 2008 on the Fed­er­al Po­lice In­form­a­tion Sys­tems, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2008 4989; BBl 2006 5061).

Art. 97 Rights to information in the case of pending proceedings

As long as pro­ceed­ings are pending, the parties and the oth­er par­ti­cipants in the pro­ceed­ings have, in ac­cord­ance with their right to in­spect case doc­u­ments, the right to in­form­a­tion on per­son­al data re­lat­ing to them that has been pro­cessed.

Art. 98 Correction of data

1Where per­son­al data proves to be in­cor­rect, the rel­ev­ant crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall cor­rect it im­me­di­ately.

2They shall im­me­di­ately no­ti­fy au­thor­it­ies to which they have trans­mit­ted, made avail­able or dis­closed the data of the cor­rec­tions.1


1 Amended by No II 3 of the FA of 28 Sept. 2018 on the im­ple­ment­a­tion of Dir­ect­ive (EU) 2016/680 on the pro­tec­tion of nat­ur­al per­sons with re­gard to the pro­cessing of per­son­al data by com­pet­ent au­thor­it­ies for the pur­poses of the pre­ven­tion, in­vest­ig­a­tion, de­tec­tion or pro­sec­u­tion of crim­in­al of­fences or the ex­e­cu­tion of crim­in­al pen­al­ties, in force since 1 March 2019 (AS 2019 625; BBl 2017 6941).

Art. 99 Processing and retention of personal data after conclusion of the proceedings

1After con­clu­sion of the pro­ceed­ings, the pro­cessing of per­son­al data, pro­ced­ures and leg­al pro­tec­tion are gov­erned by the pro­vi­sions of fed­er­al and can­ton­al data pro­tec­tion law.

2The peri­od of re­ten­tion of per­son­al data after con­clu­sion of pro­ceed­ings is gov­erned by Art­icle 103.

3The pro­vi­sions of the Fed­er­al Act of 7 Oc­to­ber 19941 on the Cent­ral Of­fices of the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Po­lice, the Fed­er­al Act of 13 June 20082 on the Fed­er­al Po­lice In­form­a­tion Sys­tems and the pro­vi­sions of this Code on identi­fy­ing doc­u­ments and DNA pro­files are re­served.3


1 SR 360
2 SR 361
3 Amended by An­nex 2 No I 1 let. a of the FA of 13 June 2008 on the Fed­er­al Po­lice In­form­a­tion Sys­tems, in force since 1 Jan. 2011 (AS 2008 4989; BBl 2006 5061).

Section 9 Management, Inspection and Retention of Case Files

Art. 100 File management

1A case file shall be opened for each crim­in­al case. This file shall con­tain:

a.
the re­cords of pro­ceed­ings and ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings;
b.
the doc­u­ments com­plied by the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity;
c.
the doc­u­ments sub­mit­ted by the parties.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall en­sure the sys­tem­at­ic fil­ing of doc­u­ments and se­quen­tial in­dex­ing; in simple cases, an in­dex is not re­quired.

Art. 101 Inspection of case documents in pending proceedings

1The parties may in­spect the doc­u­ments re­lat­ing to the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings at the latest fol­low­ing the first in­ter­view with the ac­cused and the gath­er­ing of the oth­er most im­port­ant evid­ence by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor; Art­icle 108 is re­served.

2Oth­er au­thor­it­ies may in­spect the case doc­u­ments if they need to do so for the pur­poses of pending civil, crim­in­al or ad­min­is­trat­ive pro­ceed­ings and in­spec­tion is not con­trary to any over­rid­ing pub­lic or private in­terests.

3Third parties may in­spect the case doc­u­ments if they claim to have an aca­dem­ic or oth­er le­git­im­ate in­terest in do­ing so and in­spec­tion is not con­trary to any over­rid­ing pub­lic or private in­terests.

Art. 102 Procedure relating to applications to inspect case documents

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings de­cides on wheth­er case doc­u­ments may be in­spec­ted. He or she shall take the meas­ures re­quired to pre­vent ab­uses and delays and to pro­tect le­git­im­ate in­terests in con­fid­en­ti­al­ity.

2The case doc­u­ments must be in­spec­ted at the of­fices of the rel­ev­ant crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity or those of an­oth­er crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity in mu­tu­al as­sist­ance pro­ceed­ings. Nor­mally they shall be de­livered to oth­er au­thor­it­ies or the leg­al agents for the parties.

3Any per­son who is en­titled to in­spect case doc­u­ments may re­quest cop­ies there­of for a fee.

Art. 103 Retention of case documents

1The case doc­u­ments must be pre­served at least un­til con­clu­sion of the time lim­its for pro­sec­u­tion and for the ex­e­cu­tion of the sen­tence have ex­pired.

2The fore­go­ing para­graph does not ap­ply to ori­gin­al doc­u­ments in­cluded in the case file; they must be re­turned to the per­sons en­titled thereto against writ­ten ac­know­ledge­ment of re­ceipt as soon as the crim­in­al case has been de­cided by a fi­nal judg­ment.

Title 3 Parties and Other Persons involved in the Proceedings

Chapter 1 General Provisions

Section 1 Definition and Status

Art. 104 Parties

1Parties are:

a.
the ac­cused;
b.
the private claimant;
c.
in the main hear­ing and in ap­pel­late pro­ceed­ings: the pub­lic pro­sec­utor.

2The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may grant full or lim­ited party rights to oth­er au­thor­it­ies that are re­quired to safe­guard pub­lic in­terests.

Art. 105 Other persons involved in the proceedings

1Oth­er per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings are:

a.
per­sons suf­fer­ing harm;
b.
the per­son who has re­por­ted the of­fence;
c.
wit­nesses;
d.
per­sons provid­ing in­form­a­tion;
e.
ex­pert wit­nesses;
f.
third parties who have suffered det­ri­ment due to pro­ced­ur­al acts.

2If the rights of per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings named in para­graph 1 are dir­ectly af­fected, they shall, in or­der to safe­guard their in­terests, be en­titled to the pro­ced­ur­al rights of a party.

Art. 106 Capacity to act

1The party may val­idly carry out pro­ced­ur­al acts only if he or she has the ca­pa­city to act.

2A per­son lack­ing the ca­pa­city to act shall be rep­res­en­ted by his or her stat­utory rep­res­ent­at­ive.

3A per­son with ca­pa­city of judge­ment who lacks the ca­pa­city to act may, in ad­di­tion to his or her leg­al agent, ex­er­cise pro­ced­ur­al rights that are of a highly per­son­al nature.

Art. 107 Right to be heard

1The parties have the right to be heard; in par­tic­u­lar, they have the right:

a.
to in­spect case doc­u­ments;
b.
to par­ti­cip­ate in pro­ced­ur­al acts
c.
to ap­point a leg­al agent;
d.
to com­ment on the case and on the pro­ceed­ings;
e.
to re­quest that fur­ther evid­ence be taken.

2The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall no­ti­fy parties who are un­aware of the law of their rights.

Art. 108 Restriction of the right to be heard

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies may re­strict the right to be heard if:

a.
there is jus­ti­fied sus­pi­cion that a party is ab­us­ing his or her rights;
b.
this is re­quired for the safety of per­sons or to safe­guard pub­lic or private in­terests in pre­serving con­fid­en­ti­al­ity.

2Re­stric­tions in re­la­tion to leg­al agents are only per­mit­ted if the leg­al agent gives per­son­al cause for im­pos­ing a re­stric­tion.

3Re­stric­tions must be lim­ited in time or to in­di­vidu­al pro­ced­ur­al acts.

4If the reas­on for im­pos­ing the re­stric­tion con­tin­ues to ap­ply, the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies may base their de­cisions on files that have not been dis­closed to a party only if that party has been in­formed of the es­sen­tial con­tent there­of.

5If the reas­on for the re­stric­tion has ceased to ap­ply, the right to be heard must be gran­ted in a suit­able form ret­ro­spect­ively.

Section 2 Procedural Acts by the Parties

Art. 109 Submissions

1The parties may make sub­mis­sions to the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings at any time, sub­ject to the spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sions there­on in this Code.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall ex­am­ine the sub­mis­sions and give the oth­er parties the op­por­tun­ity to com­ment.

Art. 110 Form

1Sub­mis­sions may be made in writ­ing or or­ally on re­cord. Writ­ten sub­mis­sions must be dated and signed.

2In the case of elec­tron­ic sub­mis­sion, the sub­mis­sion and its en­clos­ures must bear a qual­i­fied elec­tron­ic sig­na­ture in ac­cord­ance with the Fed­er­al Act of 18 March 20161 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures. The Fed­er­al Coun­cil shall reg­u­late:

a.
the format for sub­mis­sions and their at­tach­ments;
b.
the meth­od of trans­mis­sion;
c.
the re­quire­ments for re­quest­ing the sub­mis­sion of doc­u­ments in pa­per form in the event of tech­nic­al prob­lems.2

3Pro­ced­ur­al acts are not oth­er­wise sub­ject to any form­al re­quire­ments un­less this Code provides oth­er­wise.

4The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may re­ject il­legible, in­com­pre­hens­ible, im­prop­er or in­co­her­ent sub­mis­sions; they shall fix a dead­line for the re­vi­sion of the sub­mis­sion and give no­tice that the sub­mis­sion if not re­vised, will not be con­sidered.


1 SR 943.03
2 Amended by An­nex No II 7 of the FA of 18 March 2016 on Elec­tron­ic Sig­na­tures, in force since 1 Jan. 2017 (AS 2016 4651; BBl 2014 1001).

Chapter 2 The Accused

Art. 111 Definition

1For the pur­poses of this Code, the ac­cused is a per­son sus­pec­ted, ac­cused of or charged with an of­fence in a re­port of a crim­in­al of­fence, a crim­in­al com­plaint or in a pro­ced­ur­al act car­ried out by a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity.

2The rights and the ob­lig­a­tions of an ac­cused also ap­ply to per­sons in re­spect of whom it is in­ten­ded to bring new pro­ceed­ings fol­low­ing aban­don­ment or a judg­ment in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 323 or Art­icles 410–415.

Art. 112 Criminal proceedings against corporate undertakings

1In crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings against a cor­por­ate un­der­tak­ing, the un­der­tak­ing shall be rep­res­en­ted by a single per­son who has un­lim­ited au­thor­ity to rep­res­ent the un­der­tak­ing in private law mat­ters.

2If the un­der­tak­ing fails to ap­point such a rep­res­ent­at­ive with­in a reas­on­able time, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall de­cide which of the per­sons au­thor­ised to rep­res­ent the un­der­tak­ing in private law mat­ters will rep­res­ent the un­der­tak­ing in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings.

3If a crim­in­al in­vest­ig­a­tion is opened against the per­son rep­res­ent­ing the un­der­tak­ing in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings in re­spect of the same or re­lated cir­cum­stances, the un­der­tak­ing must ap­point an­oth­er rep­res­ent­at­ive. If ne­ces­sary, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall ap­point an­oth­er per­son to rep­res­ent the un­der­tak­ing in ac­cord­ance with para­graph 2, or if no one is avail­able, a suit­able third party.

4If pro­ceed­ings are brought against a nat­ur­al per­son and an un­der­tak­ing in re­spect of the same or re­lated cir­cum­stances, the two pro­ceed­ings may be com­bined.

Art. 113 Status

1The ac­cused may not be com­pelled to in­crim­in­ate him or her­self. In par­tic­u­lar, the ac­cused is en­titled to re­fuse to make a state­ment or to co­oper­ate in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings. He or she must however sub­mit to the com­puls­ory meas­ures provided for by the law.

2The pro­ceed­ings con­tin­ue ir­re­spect­ive of wheth­er the ac­cused co­oper­ates.

Art. 114 Fitness to plead

1An ac­cused is fit to plead if he or she is phys­ic­ally and men­tally cap­able of un­der­stand­ing the pro­ceed­ings.

2In the event of tem­por­ary un­fit­ness to plead, pro­ced­ur­al acts that can­not be delayed shall be car­ried out in the pres­ence of the de­fence.

3If the ac­cused re­mains un­fit to plead, the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings shall be sus­pen­ded or aban­doned. The spe­cial pro­vi­sions on pro­ceed­ings against an ac­cused who is not leg­ally re­spons­ible due to a men­tal dis­order are re­served.

Chapter 3 Persons suffering Harm, Victims and Private Claimants

Section 1 Persons suffering Harm

Art. 115

1A per­son suf­fer­ing harm is a per­son whose rights have been dir­ectly vi­ol­ated by the of­fence.

2A per­son en­titled to file a crim­in­al com­plaint is deemed in every case to be a per­son suf­fer­ing harm.

Section 2 Victims

Art. 116 Definitions

1A vic­tim is a per­son suf­fer­ing harm whose phys­ic­al, sexu­al or men­tal in­teg­rity has been dir­ectly and ad­versely af­fected by the of­fence.

2Re­l­at­ives of the vic­tim are his or her spouse, chil­dren and par­ents, and per­sons closely re­lated to him or her in a sim­il­ar way.

Art. 117 Status

1Vic­tims have spe­cial rights, in par­tic­u­lar:

a.
the right to pro­tec­tion of per­son­al pri­vacy (Art. 70 para. 1 let. a, 74 para. 4, 152 para. 1);
b.
the right to be ac­com­pan­ied by a con­fid­ant (Art. 70 para. 2, 152 para. 2);
c.
the right to pro­tect­ive meas­ures (Art. 152–154);
d.
the right to re­main si­lent (Art. 169 para. 4);
e.
the right to in­form­a­tion (Art. 305 and 330 para. 3);
f.
the right to a spe­cial com­pos­i­tion of the court (Art. 335 para. 4).

2In the case of vic­tims un­der the age of 18, ad­di­tion­al spe­cial pro­vi­sions pro­tect­ing per­son­al pri­vacy ap­ply, in par­tic­u­lar re­lat­ing to:

a.
re­stric­tions on con­front­a­tion hear­ings with the ac­cused (Art. 154 para. 4);
b.
spe­cial pro­tect­ive meas­ures dur­ing ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings (Art. 154 para. 2–4);
c.
aban­don­ment of the pro­ceed­ings (Art. 319 para. 2).

3If re­l­at­ives of a vic­tim file civil claims, they are en­titled to the same rights as the vic­tim.

Section 3 Private Claimants

Art. 118 Definition and requirements

1A private claimant is a per­son suf­fer­ing harm who ex­pressly de­clares that he or she wishes to par­ti­cip­ate in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings as a crim­in­al or civil claimant.

2The fil­ing of a crim­in­al com­plaint is re­garded as be­ing equi­val­ent to such a de­clar­a­tion.

3The de­clar­a­tion must be made to a crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity by the end of the pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings at the latest.

4If a per­son suf­fer­ing harm has not made a de­clar­a­tion of his or her own vo­li­tion, so the pub­lic pro­sec­utor shall ad­vise the per­son of this pos­sib­il­ity after open­ing the pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 119 Form and content of the declaration

1A per­son suf­fer­ing harm may sub­mit a writ­ten de­clar­a­tion in writ­ing or make the de­clar­a­tion or­ally on re­cord.

2In the de­clar­a­tion the per­son suf­fer­ing harm may do either or both of the fol­low­ing:

a.
re­quest the pro­sec­u­tion and pun­ish­ment of the per­son re­spons­ible for the of­fence (a crim­in­al com­plaint);
b.
file private law claims based on the of­fence (a civil claim).

Art. 120 Waiver and withdrawal

1The per­son suf­fer­ing harm may at any time de­clare either in writ­ing or or­ally on re­cord that he or she waives his or her rights. The waiver is fi­nal.

2Un­less the waiver is ex­pressly lim­ited, it shall be deemed to cov­er both the crim­in­al and the civil pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 121 Legal successors

1If the per­son suf­fer­ing harm dies without waiv­ing his or her pro­ced­ur­al rights as a private claimant, such rights pass to his or her re­l­at­ives as defined in Art­icle 110 para­graph 1 SCC1 in ac­cord­ance with their rank­ing un­der the law of suc­ces­sion.

2Any per­son who by law ac­quires the rights as a claimant of a per­son suf­fer­ing harm does so only in re­spect of the civil claim and has only those pro­ced­ur­al rights that re­late dir­ectly to the as­ser­tion of the civil claim.


1 SR 311.0

Section 4 Civil Claims

Art. 122 General Provisions

1The per­son suf­fer­ing harm may bring civil claims based on the of­fence as a private claimant in the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings.

2The re­l­at­ives of the vic­tim have the same right provided they bring their own civil claims against the ac­cused.

3The civil pro­ceed­ings be­come pending when a de­clar­a­tion in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 119 para­graph 2 let­ter b is made.

4If a private claimant with­draws the civil claim be­fore the end of the main hear­ing be­fore the court of first in­stance, they may file the claim again in civil pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 123 Quantification and statement of the grounds

1The civil claim must if pos­sible be quan­ti­fied in the de­clar­a­tion made in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 119 and a brief state­ment of the grounds must be provided, de­tail­ing the rel­ev­ant evid­ence.

2The quan­ti­fic­a­tion and state­ment of the grounds must be spe­cified in the party sub­mis­sions at the latest.

Art. 124 Jurisdiction and procedure

1The court hear­ing the crim­in­al case shall judge the civil claim re­gard­less of the amount in­volved.

2The ac­cused shall be giv­en the op­por­tun­ity to re­spond to the civil claim in the main pro­ceed­ings be­fore the court of first in­stance at the latest.

3If the ac­cused ac­cepts the civil claim, this shall be placed on re­cord and re­cor­ded in the de­cision con­clud­ing the pro­ceed­ings.

Art. 125 Security for the claims against the private claimant

1A private claimant, with the ex­cep­tion of the vic­tim, must on ap­plic­a­tion by the ac­cused lodge se­cur­ity in re­spect of the ac­cused's prob­able costs arising from the civil claim if:

a.
he or she is not dom­i­ciled or has no re­gistered of­fice in Switzer­land;
b.
he or she ap­pears to be in­solv­ent, in par­tic­u­lar if bank­ruptcy pro­ceed­ings have been opened or com­pos­i­tion pro­ceed­ings are on­go­ing or if cer­ti­fic­ates of loss have been is­sued;
c.
for oth­er reas­ons, there is reas­on to fear that the ac­cused's claim could be ser­i­ously jeop­ard­ised or frus­trated.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings for the court shall is­sue a fi­nal judg­ment on the ap­plic­a­tion. He or she shall de­term­ine the amount of se­cur­ity and fix a time lim­it for its pay­ment.

3The se­cur­ity may be paid in cash or take the form of a guar­an­tee from a bank per­man­ently es­tab­lished in Switzer­land.

4It may be ret­ro­spect­ively in­creased, re­duced or re­voked.

Art. 126 Decision

1The court de­cides on pending civil claims in the event that it:

a.
con­victs the ac­cused;
b.
ac­quits the ac­cused and the court is in a po­s­i­tion to make a de­cision.

2The civil claim shall be re­ferred for civil pro­ceed­ings if:

a.
the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings are aban­doned or con­cluded by means of the sum­mary pen­alty or­der pro­ced­ure;
b.
the private claimant has failed to jus­ti­fy or quanti­fy the claim suf­fi­ciently;
c.
the private claimant has failed to lodge se­cur­ity in re­spect of the claim;
d.
the ac­cused has been ac­quit­ted but the court is not in a po­s­i­tion to make a de­cision.

3If a full as­sess­ment of the civil claim would cause un­reas­on­able ex­pense and in­con­veni­ence, the court may make a de­cision in prin­ciple on the civil claim and refer it for civil pro­ceed­ings. If pos­sible, the court shall rule on minor claims it­self.

4In cases in­volving the vic­tim, the court may firstly de­cide solely on guilt and the pen­alty; there­after the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall, fol­low­ing a fur­ther hear­ing of the parties, rule as a judge sit­ting alone on the civil claim, ir­re­spect­ive of its amount.

Chapter 4 Legal Agents

Section 1 Principles

Art. 127

1The ac­cused, the private claimant and the oth­er per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings may ap­point a leg­al agent to safe­guard their in­terests.

2The parties may ap­point two or more per­sons as leg­al agent provided this does not un­reas­on­ably delay the pro­ceed­ings. In such a case, they must des­ig­nate one agent as the prin­cip­al agent, who is au­thor­ised to carry out acts of rep­res­ent­a­tion be­fore the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies and whose dom­i­cile is deemed to be the sole ad­dress for ser­vice.

3The leg­al agent may act for two or more per­sons in­volved in the pro­ceed­ings, sub­ject to the re­stric­tions laid down by law and in their pro­fes­sion­al code of prac­tice.

4The parties may ap­point any per­son who has the ca­pa­city to act, is of un­blem­ished repu­ta­tion and is trust­worthy; the re­stric­tions of the law gov­ern­ing the leg­al pro­fes­sion are re­served.

5The de­fence of the ac­cused is re­served to law­yers who are au­thor­ised un­der the Law­yers Act of 23 June 20001 to rep­res­ent parties in court; the fore­go­ing is sub­ject to derog­at­ing can­ton­al pro­vi­sions on the de­fence in pro­ceed­ings re­lat­ing to con­tra­ven­tions.


Section 2 Defence Lawyers

Art. 128 Status

A de­fence law­yer is ob­liged to act solely in the in­terests the ac­cused, sub­ject to the re­stric­tions laid down by law and in the pro­fes­sion­al code of prac­tice.

Art. 129 Right to choose a defence lawyer

1The ac­cused is en­titled, in any crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings and at any stage of the pro­ceed­ings either to in­struct a leg­al agent as defined in Art­icle 127 para­graph 5 to con­duct his or her de­fence (right to choose a de­fence law­yer) or, sub­ject to Art­icle 130, to con­duct his or her own de­fence.

2The ac­cused ex­er­cises his or her right to choose a de­fence law­yer by ex­ecut­ing a writ­ten power of at­tor­ney or mak­ing a de­clar­a­tion on re­cord.

Art. 130 Mandatory appointment of a defence lawyer

A de­fence law­yer must be ap­poin­ted to rep­res­ent the ac­cused if:

a.
the peri­od on re­mand in­clud­ing the peri­od when un­der ar­rest has con­tin­ued for more than 10 days;
b.1
the of­fence con­cerned car­ries a cus­todi­al sen­tence of more than a year or a cus­todi­al meas­ure or may res­ult in ex­pul­sion from Switzer­land;
c.
the ac­cused is un­able to safe­guard his or her in­terests in the pro­ceed­ings ad­equately due to his or her phys­ic­al or men­tal con­di­tion or for oth­er reas­ons, and his or her stat­utory rep­res­ent­at­ive is un­able to do so either;
d.
the pro­sec­ut­ing law­yer is ap­pear­ing in per­son be­fore the court of first in­stance or the court of ap­peal;
e.
ac­cel­er­ated pro­ceed­ings (Art. 358–362) are be­ing con­duc­ted.

1 Amended by An­nex No 5 of the FA of 20 March 2015 (Im­ple­ment­a­tion of Art. 121 para. 3–6 Fed­er­al Con­sti­tu­tion on the ex­pul­sion of for­eign na­tion­als con­victed of cer­tain crim­in­al of­fences), in force since 1 Oct. 2016 (AS 2016 2329; BBl 2013 5975).

Art. 131 Appointment of the mandatory defence lawyer

1Where the man­dat­ory ap­point­ment of a de­fence law­yer is re­quired, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall en­sure that a de­fence law­yer is ap­poin­ted im­me­di­ately.

2If the re­quire­ments for the man­dat­ory ap­point­ment of a de­fence law­yer are ful­filled on com­mence­ment of the pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings, the de­fence law­yer must be ap­poin­ted fol­low­ing the first in­ter­view by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor, or be­fore open­ing the in­vest­ig­a­tion at the latest.

3In cases where the ap­point­ment of a man­dat­ory de­fence law­yer is clearly re­quired but evid­ence is ob­tained be­fore a de­fence law­yer is ap­poin­ted, the evid­ence ob­tained is only ad­miss­ible if the ac­cused waives the right to have the evid­ence taken again.

Art. 132 Duty defence lawyer

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall ap­point a duty de­fence law­yer if:

a.
in the event of man­dat­ory ap­point­ment of a de­fence law­yer:
1.
the ac­cused, des­pite be­ing re­ques­ted to do so by the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings, fails to ap­point a de­fence law­yer of choice, or
2.
the de­fence law­yer of choice has been dis­missed or has resigned and the ac­cused fails to ap­point a new de­fence law­yer of choice with­in the time lim­it set;
b.
the ac­cused lacks the ne­ces­sary fin­an­cial means and re­quires a de­fence law­yer to safe­guard of his or her in­terests.

2A de­fence law­yer is re­quired to safe­guard the in­terests of the ac­cused in par­tic­u­lar if the mat­ter is not a minor case and the case in­volves fac­tu­al or leg­al is­sues that the ac­cused is not qual­i­fied to deal with alone.

3A case is no longer re­garded as minor if it is prob­able that a cus­todi­al sen­tence of more than 4 months or a mon­et­ary pen­alty of more than 120 daily pen­alty units may be im­posed on con­vic­tion.1


1 Amended by An­nex No 3 of the FA of 19 June 2015 (Amend­ments to the Law of Crim­in­al Sanc­tions), in force since 1 Jan. 2018 (AS 2016 1249; BBl 2012 4721).

Art. 133 Appointment of the duty defence lawyer

1The duty de­fence law­yer is ap­poin­ted by the per­son act­ing as dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings at the rel­ev­ant stage of the pro­ceed­ings.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall if pos­sible take ac­count of the wishes of the ac­cused when ap­point­ing the duty de­fence law­yer.

Art. 134 Dismissal and change of duty defence lawyer

1If there is no longer any reas­on to have a duty de­fence law­yer, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall dis­miss the law­yer.

2If the mu­tu­al trust between the ac­cused and his or her duty de­fence law­yer is ser­i­ously com­prom­ised or the pro­vi­sion of an ef­fect­ive de­fence is no longer guar­an­teed for oth­er reas­ons, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall ap­point an­oth­er per­son as the duty de­fence law­yer.

Art. 135 Duty defence lawyer's fees

1The duty de­fence law­yer shall be paid in ac­cord­ance with the table of leg­al fees ap­plic­able in the Con­fed­er­a­tion or in the can­ton in which the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings were con­duc­ted.

2The pub­lic pro­sec­utor or the court passing judg­ment shall de­term­ine the fees at the end of the pro­ceed­ings.

3The duty de­fence law­yer may file an ob­jec­tion against the de­cision on fees:

a.
with the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity, where the de­cision was made by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor or the court of first in­stance; or
b.
with the Fed­er­al Crim­in­al Court, where the de­cision was made by the ob­jec­tions au­thor­ity or the can­ton­al court of ap­peal.

4If the ac­cused is ordered to pay pro­ced­ur­al costs, as soon as his or her fin­an­cial cir­cum­stances per­mit, he or she must:

a.
re­pay the fees to the Con­fed­er­a­tion or the can­ton;
b.
pay the de­fence law­yer the dif­fer­ence between the of­fi­cial fees and the full fees.

5The rights of the Con­fed­er­a­tion or of the can­ton are sub­ject to a time lim­it of 10 years from the time when the de­cision be­comes leg­ally bind­ing.

Section 3 Legal Aid for the Private Claimant

Art. 136 Requirements

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall grant the private claimant full or par­tial leg­al aid for the en­force­ment of their civil claims if:

a.
the private claimant does not have the re­quired fin­an­cial re­sources; and
b.
the civil pro­ceed­ings does not ap­pear to be without any pro­spect of suc­cess.

2Leg­al aid in­cludes:

a.
re­lief from the re­quire­ment to make an ad­vance pay­ment or to provide se­cur­ity in re­spect of costs;
b.
re­lief from the re­quire­ment to pay pro­ced­ur­al costs;
c.
the ap­point­ment of a leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ive if this is ne­ces­sary to safe­guard the rights of the private claimant.

Art. 137 Appointment, dismissal and change

The ap­point­ment, dis­missal and change of the leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ive are gov­erned by Art­icles 133 and 134 mu­tatis mutandis.

Art. 138 Fees and allocation of costs

1The leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ive's fees are gov­erned by Art­icle 135 mu­tatis mutandis; the fi­nal judg­ment on who must pay the costs of the leg­al rep­res­ent­at­ive and of any pro­ced­ur­al acts in re­spect of which re­lief has been gran­ted from mak­ing an ad­vance pay­ment to cov­er costs re­mains re­served.

2If the private claimant is awar­ded pro­ced­ur­al and leg­al costs to be paid by the ac­cused, the por­tion of these costs covered by leg­al aid must be re­fun­ded to the Con­fed­er­a­tion or to the can­ton.

Title 4 Evidence

Chapter 1 General Provisions

Section 1 Taking Evidence and Admissibility of Evidence

Art. 139 Principles

1In or­der to es­tab­lish the truth, the crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall use all the leg­ally ad­miss­ible evid­ence that is rel­ev­ant in ac­cord­ance with the latest sci­entif­ic find­ings and ex­per­i­ence.

2No evid­ence shall be led on mat­ters that are ir­rel­ev­ant, ob­vi­ous, known to the crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity or already ad­equately proven in law.

Art. 140 Prohibited methods of taking evidence

1The use of co­er­cion, vi­ol­ence, threats, prom­ises, de­cep­tion and meth­ods that may com­prom­ise the abil­ity of the per­son con­cerned to think or de­cide freely are pro­hib­ited when tak­ing evid­ence.

2Such meth­ods re­main un­law­ful even if the per­son con­cerned con­sents to their use.

Art. 141 Admissibility of unlawfully obtained evidence

1Evid­ence ob­tained in vi­ol­a­tion of Art­icle 140 is not ad­miss­ible un­der any cir­cum­stances. The fore­go­ing also ap­plies where this Code de­clares evid­ence to be in­ad­miss­ible.

2Evid­ence that crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies have ob­tained by crim­in­al meth­ods or by vi­ol­at­ing reg­u­la­tions on ad­miss­ib­il­ity is in­ad­miss­ible un­less it is es­sen­tial that it be ad­mit­ted in or­der to se­cure a con­vic­tion for a ser­i­ous of­fence.

3Evid­ence that has been ob­tained in vi­ol­a­tion of ad­min­is­trat­ive reg­u­la­tions is ad­miss­ible.

4Where evid­ence that is in­ad­miss­ible un­der para­graph 2 has made it pos­sible to ob­tain ad­di­tion­al evid­ence, such evid­ence is not ad­miss­ible if it would have been im­possible to ob­tain had the pre­vi­ous evid­ence not been ob­tained.

5Re­cords re­lat­ing to in­ad­miss­ible evid­ence shall be re­moved from the case doc­u­ments, held in safe­keep­ing un­til a fi­nal judg­ment has con­cluded the pro­ceed­ings, and then des­troyed.

Section 2 Examination Hearings

Art. 142 Criminal justice authority conducting the examination hearing

1Ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings are con­duc­ted by the pub­lic pro­sec­utor, the au­thor­it­ies re­spons­ible for pro­sec­ut­ing con­tra­ven­tions and the courts. The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons shall de­cide on the ex­tent to which the em­ploy­ees of these au­thor­it­ies are per­mit­ted to con­duct ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings.

2The po­lice may ques­tion ac­cused per­sons and per­sons provid­ing in­form­a­tion. The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may de­term­ine which po­lice of­ficers may ques­tion wit­nesses on be­half of the pub­lic pro­sec­utor.

Art. 143 Conduct of the examination hearing

1At the start of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing, the per­son be­ing ques­tioned shall, in a lan­guage they can un­der­stand:

a.
be asked for his or her per­son­al de­tails;
b.
be ad­vised of the sub­ject mat­ter of the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings and of the ca­pa­city in which he or she is be­ing in­ter­viewed;
c.
be in­formed in full of his or her rights and ob­lig­a­tions.

2A note must be made in the re­cord that the pro­vi­sions of para­graph 1 have been com­plied with.

3The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity may make fur­ther en­quir­ies in re­la­tion to the iden­tity of the per­son be­ing ques­tioned.

4It shall in­vite the per­son be­ing ques­tioned to com­ment on the sub­ject mat­ter of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.

5It shall en­deav­our by means of clearly for­mu­lated ques­tions and con­ten­tions to ob­tain com­pre­hens­ive state­ments and to cla­ri­fy any con­tra­dic­tions.

6The per­son be­ing ques­tioned shall make his or her state­ment on the basis of his or her re­col­lec­tions. He or she may make use of writ­ten doc­u­ments with the con­sent of the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings; these doc­u­ments shall be ad­ded to the case doc­u­ments on con­clu­sion of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.

7Per­sons with speech or hear­ing dif­fi­culties shall be ques­tioned in writ­ing or with the as­sist­ance of a suit­ably qual­i­fied per­son.

Art. 144 Examination hearing by video conference

1The pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the courts may con­duct an ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing by video con­fer­ence if a per­son­al ap­pear­ance by the per­son be­ing ques­tioned is not pos­sible or is only pos­sible with un­reas­on­able trouble and ex­pense.

2An au­dio and video re­cord­ing shall be made of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.

Art. 145 Written reports

The crim­in­al justice au­thor­ity may in­vite a per­son be­ing ques­tioned to provide a writ­ten re­port in­stead of or in ad­di­tion to hold­ing an ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.

Art. 146 Examination of two or more persons and confrontation hearings

1The per­sons be­ing ques­tioned shall be ques­tioned sep­ar­ately.

2The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies may ar­range for per­sons, in­clud­ing those who have the right to re­fuse to give evid­ence, to con­front each oth­er. The spe­cial rights of the vic­tim are re­served.

3They may re­quire per­sons who have been ques­tioned who will prob­ably be re­quired to con­front oth­er per­sons after the con­clu­sion of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing to re­main at the place of the pro­ceed­ings un­til the con­front­a­tion hear­ing is held.

4The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may tem­por­ar­ily ex­clude a per­son from the hear­ing if:

a.
there is a con­flict of in­terest; or
b.
the per­son must still be ques­tioned in the pro­ceed­ings as a wit­ness, a per­son provid­ing in­form­a­tion or as an ex­pert wit­ness.

Section 3 Rights to Participate in the Taking of Evidence

Art. 147 General provisions

1Parties have the right to be present when the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the courts are tak­ing evid­ence and to put ques­tions to per­sons who have been ques­tioned. The pres­ence of the de­fence law­yer at ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings con­duc­ted by the po­lice is gov­erned by Art­icle 159.

2Per­sons ex­er­cising a right to par­ti­cip­ate do not have the right to re­quest that the tak­ing of evid­ence be post­poned.

3A party or his or her leg­al agent may re­quest that evid­ence be taken again if the leg­al agent or the party without a leg­al agent is pre­ven­ted from par­ti­cip­at­ing for good cause. Evid­ence need not be taken again if it would in­volve un­reas­on­able trouble and ex­pense and the right of the party to be heard, and in par­tic­u­lar the right to ask ques­tions, can be taken in­to ac­count in an­oth­er way.

4Evid­ence ob­tained in vi­ol­a­tion of this Art­icle is in­ad­miss­ible against a party who was not present when it was taken.

Art. 148 In mutual assistance proceedings

1If evid­ence is taken abroad in ex­e­cu­tion of a re­quest for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance, the right of the parties to par­ti­cip­ate is sat­is­fied if they:

a.
are per­mit­ted to sub­mit ques­tions to be asked by the re­ques­ted for­eign au­thor­ity;
b.
are per­mit­ted to in­spect the re­cord once the re­quest for mu­tu­al as­sist­ance has been ex­ecuted; and
c.
are per­mit­ted to sub­mit writ­ten sup­ple­ment­ary ques­tions.

2Art­icle 147 para­graph 4 ap­plies.

Section 4 Protective Measures

Art. 149 General provisions

1If there are grounds to as­sume that a wit­ness, a per­son provid­ing in­form­a­tion, an ac­cused per­son, an ex­pert wit­ness or a trans­lat­or or in­ter­pret­er, or a per­son re­lated to him or her in terms of Art­icle 168 para­graphs 1–3 could be ex­posed to a ser­i­ous danger to life and limb or any oth­er ser­i­ous pre­ju­dice by par­ti­cip­at­ing in the pro­ceed­ings, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall take the ap­pro­pri­ate pro­tect­ive meas­ures in re­sponse to an ap­plic­a­tion or ex of­fi­cio.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may also suit­ably re­strict the pro­ced­ur­al rights of the parties, in par­tic­u­lar by:

a.
en­sur­ing an­onym­ity;
b.
con­duct­ing ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings while ex­clud­ing parties or the pub­lic;
c.
es­tab­lish­ing per­son­al de­tails while ex­clud­ing parties or the pub­lic;
d.
modi­fy­ing the ap­pear­ance or voice of the per­son re­quir­ing pro­tec­tion or screen­ing the per­son from the court;
e.
lim­it­ing rights to in­spect case doc­u­ments.

3The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may per­mit the per­son re­quir­ing pro­tec­tion to be ac­com­pan­ied by a leg­al agent or a con­fid­ant.

4If a per­son un­der the age of 18 is in­ter­viewed as a wit­ness or per­son provid­ing in­form­a­tion, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may or­der fur­ther pro­tect­ive meas­ures in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 154 para­graphs 2 and 4.

5The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall en­sure in the case of all pro­tect­ive meas­ures that the right of the parties to be heard is re­spec­ted and in par­tic­u­lar that the ac­cused's rights to a prop­er de­fence are re­spec­ted.

6If the per­son re­quir­ing pro­tec­tion has been as­sured that his or her an­onym­ity will be pre­served, the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall take ap­pro­pri­ate meas­ures to pre­vent any con­fu­sion or mis­taken iden­tity.

Art. 150 Assurance of anonymity

1The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may give an as­sur­ance to the per­son re­quir­ing pro­tec­tion that his or her an­onym­ity will be pre­served.

2The pub­lic pro­sec­utor shall sub­mit its as­sur­ance to the com­puls­ory meas­ures court with­in 30 days for ap­prov­al; in do­ing so, it must spe­cify all the de­tails re­quired to as­sess the leg­al­ity of the meas­ure. The de­cision of the com­puls­ory meas­ures court is fi­nal.

3If the com­puls­ory meas­ures court de­clines to ap­prove the meas­ure, any evid­ence already ob­tained sub­ject to the as­sur­ance of an­onym­ity shall be in­ad­miss­ible.

4An as­sur­ance of an­onym­ity that has been ap­proved or gran­ted is bind­ing on all crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies in­volved in the case.

5The per­son re­quir­ing pro­tec­tion may waive the re­quire­ment of an­onym­ity at any time.

6The pub­lic pro­sec­utor and the dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings in the court shall re­voke the as­sur­ance if there is clearly no longer a need for pro­tec­tion.

Art. 151 Measures to protect undercover investigators

1Un­der­cov­er in­vest­ig­at­ors who have been giv­en an as­sur­ance that their an­onym­ity will be pre­served have the fol­low­ing rights:

a.
to have their true iden­tity with­held throughout the en­tire pro­ceed­ings and after their con­clu­sion from every­one oth­er than the judges of the courts hear­ing the case;
b.
to have no de­tails as to their true iden­tity re­cor­ded in the case doc­u­ments.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings shall take the re­quired pro­tect­ive meas­ures.

Art. 152 General measures to protect victims

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall safe­guard the per­son­al pri­vacy of the vic­tim at every stage of the pro­ceed­ings.

2The vic­tim may be ac­com­pan­ied at all pro­ced­ur­al hear­ings by a con­fid­ant in ad­di­tion to his or her leg­al agent.

3The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies shall en­sure that the vic­tim does not en­counter the ac­cused if the vic­tim so re­quests. In such a case, they shall take ac­count of the ac­cused's right to be heard in some oth­er way. In par­tic­u­lar, they may ques­tion the vic­tim while ap­ply­ing pro­tect­ive meas­ures in ac­cord­ance with Art­icle 149 para­graph 2 let­ters b and d.

4A con­front­a­tion hear­ing may be ordered if:

a.
the ac­cused's right to be heard can­not be guar­an­teed in any oth­er way; or
b.
the hear­ing is es­sen­tial for the pur­pose of the pro­sec­u­tion.

Art. 153 Special measures to protect of victims sexual offences

1Vic­tims of sexu­al of­fences may ask to be ques­tioned by a per­son of the same sex.

2A con­front­a­tion hear­ing with the ac­cused may be ordered against the wishes of the vic­tim only if the ac­cused's right to be heard can­not be guar­an­teed in any oth­er way.

Art. 154 Special measures to protect child victims

1A vic­tim is a child with­in the mean­ing of this Art­icle if he or she is un­der 18 years of age at the time of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing or con­front­a­tion hear­ing.

2The first ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing with the child must take place as quickly as pos­sible.

3The au­thor­ity may ex­clude the con­fid­ant from the pro­ceed­ings if this per­son could ex­ert a de­cis­ive in­flu­ence on the child.

4If it is evid­ent that the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing or the con­front­a­tion hear­ing could be a ser­i­ous psy­cho­lo­gic­al bur­den for the child, the fol­low­ing rules ap­ply:

a.
A con­front­a­tion hear­ing with the ac­cused may be ordered only if the child ex­pressly re­quests the con­front­a­tion hear­ing or the ac­cused's right to be heard can­not be guar­an­teed in any oth­er way.
b.
The child may not nor­mally be in­ter­viewed more than twice dur­ing the en­tire pro­ceed­ings.
c.
A second in­ter­view shall take place only if parties were un­able to ex­er­cise their rights at the first in­ter­view or the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing is es­sen­tial in the in­terests of the en­quir­ies or of the child. If pos­sible, the child should be ques­tioned by the same per­son who con­duc­ted the first in­ter­view.
d.
Ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings shall be con­duc­ted in the pres­ence of a spe­cial­ist by an in­vest­ig­at­ing of­ficer spe­cific­ally trained for this pur­pose. Un­less a con­front­a­tion hear­ing is held, au­dio and video re­cord­ings shall be made of the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.
e.
The parties shall ex­er­cise their rights through the per­son ask­ing the ques­tions.
f.
The per­son ask­ing the ques­tions and the spe­cial­ist shall re­cord their spe­cial ob­ser­va­tions in a re­port.

Art. 155 Measures to protect persons with mental disorders

1Ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings with per­sons with men­tal dis­orders shall be lim­ited to es­sen­tial mat­ters; ad­di­tion­al ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings shall be avoided.

2The dir­ect­or of pro­ceed­ings may ar­range for spe­cial­ist crim­in­al or so­cial ser­vices au­thor­it­ies to con­duct the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing or re­quest that fam­ily mem­bers, oth­er con­fid­ants or ex­pert wit­nesses at­tend the ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing.

Art. 156 Measures to protect persons outside the proceedings

The Con­fed­er­a­tion and the can­tons may take meas­ures to pro­tect per­sons out­side the pro­ceed­ings.

Chapter 2 Examination Hearings with the Accused

Art. 157 Principle

1The crim­in­al justice au­thor­it­ies may ques­tion the ac­cused at any stage of the crim­in­al pro­ceed­ings in re­la­tion to the of­fences of which he or she is ac­cused.

2In do­ing so, they shall give the ac­cused the op­por­tun­ity to make a com­pre­hens­ive state­ment in re­la­tion to these of­fences.

Art. 158 Caution administered at the first interview

1At the start of the first in­ter­view, the po­lice or pub­lic pro­sec­utor shall ad­vise the ac­cused in a lan­guage that he or she un­der­stands:

a.
that pre­lim­in­ary pro­ceed­ings have been com­menced against him or her, and of the of­fences that are the sub­ject of the pro­ceed­ings;
b.
that he or she is en­titled to re­main si­lent and may re­fuse to co­oper­ate in the pro­ceed­ings;
c.
that he or she is en­titled to ap­point a de­fence law­yer or if ap­pro­pri­ate to re­quest the as­sist­ance of a duty de­fence law­yer;
d.
that he or she may re­quest the as­sist­ance of an in­ter­pret­er.

2Evid­ence ob­tained at an ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing con­duc­ted without the fore­go­ing cau­tion is in­ad­miss­ible.

Art. 159 Police examination hearings during enquiries

1In the case of po­lice ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings, the ac­cused has the right for his or her de­fence law­yer to be present and al­lowed to ask ques­tions.

2In the case of po­lice ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ings of a per­son who has been ar­res­ted, the per­son also is en­titled to com­mu­nic­ate freely with his or her de­fence law­yer.

3The ex­am­in­a­tion hear­ing may not be post­poned to al­low time for the fore­go­ing rights to be ex­er­cised.

Art. 160 Examination hearing with an accused who has admitted the offence

If the ac­cused has ad­mit­ted com­mit­ting the of­fence, the pub­lic pro­sec­utor and court shall as­sess the cred­ib­il­ity of the ad­mis­sion and re­quest the ac­cused to provide more pre­cise de­tails of the cir­cum­stances of the of­fence.

Art. 161 Investigation of personal circumstances at the preliminary proceedings stage

The pub­lic pro­sec­utor shall ques­tion the ac­cused with re­gard to his or her per­son­al cir­cum­stances only if it is ex­pec­ted that the ac­cused will be charged or is­sued with a sum­mary pen­alty or­der or if it is es­sen­tial for oth­er reas­ons.

A:
AHVG Bundesgesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AHVV Verordnung über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung
AIG Bundesgesetz über die Ausländerinnen und Ausländer und über die Integration
AVIG Bundesgesetz über die obligatorische Arbeitslosenversicherung und die Insolvenzentschädigung
AVO Verordnung über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AVO-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Beaufsichtigung von privaten Versicherungsunternehmen
AdoV Verordnung über die Adoption
ArG Bundesgesetz über die Arbeit in Industrie, Gewerbe und Handel
ArGV 1 Verordnung 1 zum Arbeitsgesetz
AsylG Asylgesetz
B:
BBG Bundesgesetzüber die Berufsbildung
BEG Bundesgesetz über Bucheffekten
BEHG Bundesgesetz über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BEHV Verordnung über die Börsen und den Effektenhandel
BG-HAÜ Bundesgesetz zum Haager Adoptionsübereinkommen und über Massnahmen zum Schutz des Kindes bei internationalen Adoptionen
BG-KKE Bundesgesetz über internationale Kindesentführung und die Haager Übereinkommen zum Schutz von Kindern und Erwachsenen
BGBB Bundesgesetz über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
BGFA Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit der Anwältinnen und Anwälte
BGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesgericht
BIV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Insolvenz von Banken und Effektenhändlern
BPG Bundespersonalgesetz
BPR Bundesgesetz über die politischen Rechte
BV Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft
BVG Bundesgesetz über die berufliche Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
BZG Bundesgesetz über den Bevölkerungsschutz und den Zivilschutz
BankG Bundesgesetz über die Banken und Sparkassen
BankV Verordnung über die Banken und Sparkassen
BetmG Bundesgesetz über die Betäubungsmittel und die psychotropen Stoffe
BewG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BewV Verordnung über den Erwerb von Grundstücken durch Personen im Ausland
BöB Bundesgesetz über das öffentliche Beschaffungswesen
BüG Bundesgesetz über Erwerb und Verlust des Schweizer Bürgerrechts
D:
DBG Bundesgesetz über die direkte Bundessteuer
DSG Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
E:
EBG Eisenbahngesetz
EMRK Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten
EOG Bundesgesetz über den Erwerbsersatz für Dienstleistende und bei Mutterschaft
EOV Verordnung zum Erwerbsersatzgesetz
EÖBV Verordnung über die elektronische öffentliche Beurkundung
F:
FHG Bundesgesetz über den eidgenössischen Finanzhaushalt
FINMAG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzmarktaufsicht
FKG Bundesgesetz über die Eidgenössische Finanzkontrolle
FMedG Bundesgesetz über die medizinisch unterstützte Fortpflanzung
FZG Bundesgesetz über die Freizügigkeit in der beruflichen Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenvorsorge
FinfraG Bundesgesetz über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV Verordnung über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FinfraV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die Finanzmarktinfrastrukturen und das Marktverhalten im Effekten- und Derivatehandel
FusG Bundesgesetz über Fusion, Spaltung, Umwandlung und Vermögensübertragung
G:
GBV Grundbuchverordnung
GSG Bundesgesetz über die von der Schweiz als Gaststaat gewährten Vorrechte, Immunitäten und Erleichterungen sowie finanziellen Beiträge
GUMG Bundesgesetz über genetische Untersuchungen beim Menschen
GeBüV Verordnung über die Führung und Aufbewahrung der Geschäftsbücher
GebV SchKG Gebührenverordnung zum Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
GlG Bundesgesetz über die Gleichstellung von Frau und Mann
H:
HEsÜ Übereinkommen über den internationalen Schutz von Erwachsenen
HKsÜ Übereinkommen
HRegV Handelsregisterverordnung
I:
IPRG Bundesgesetz über das Internationale Privatrecht
J:
JStG Bundesgesetz über das Jugendstrafrecht
JStPO Schweizerische Jugendstrafprozessordnung
K:
KAG Bundesgesetz über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KAKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KG Bundesgesetz über Kartelle und andere Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
KKV Verordnung über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über die kollektiven Kapitalanlagen
KOV Verordnung über die Geschäftsführung der Konkursämter (KOV)
KVG Bundesgesetz über die Krankenversicherung
L:
LVG Bundesgesetz über die wirtschaftliche Landesversorgung
LugÜ Übereinkommen über die gerichtliche Zuständigkeit und die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung von Entscheidungen in Zivil- und Handelssachen
M:
MSchG Bundesgesetz über den Schutz von Marken und Herkunftsangaben
MStG Militärstrafgesetz
MWSTG Bundesgesetz über die Mehrwertsteuer
MWSTV Mehrwertsteuerverordnung
O:
OAV-SchKG Verordnung betreffend die Oberaufsicht über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
OHG Bundesgesetz über die Hilfe an Opfer von Straftaten
OR Bundesgesetz betreffend die Ergänzung des Schweizerischen Zivilgesetzbuches (Fünfter Teil: Obligationenrecht)
P:
PAVO Verordnung über die Aufnahme von Pflegekindern
PBV Verordnung über die Bekanntgabe von Preisen
ParlG Bundesgesetz über die Bundesversammlung
PartG Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
PatGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundespatentgericht
PfG Pfandbriefgesetz
PrHG Bundesgesetz über die Produktehaftpflicht
PüG Preisüberwachungsgesetz
R:
RAG Bundesgesetz über die Zulassung und Beaufsichtigung der Revisorinnen und Revisoren
S:
SVG Strassenverkehrsgesetz
SVKG Verordnung über die Sanktionen bei unzulässigen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen
SchKG Bundesgesetz über Schuldbetreibung und Konkurs
StBOG Bundesgesetz über die Organisation der Strafbehörden des Bundes
StG Bundesgesetz über die Stempelabgaben
StGB Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch
StHG Bundesgesetz über die Harmonisierung der direkten Steuern der Kantone und Gemeinden
StPO Schweizerische Strafprozessordnung
StV Verordnung über die Stempelabgaben
SuG Bundesgesetz über Finanzhilfen und Abgeltungen
U:
URG Bundesgesetz über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
URV Verordnung über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte
UVG Bundesgesetz über die Unfallversicherung
UVV Verordnung über die Unfallversicherung
UWG Bundesgesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb
V:
VAG Bundesgesetz betreffend die Aufsicht über Versicherungsunternehmen
VASR Verordnung über die anerkannten Standards zur Rechnungslegung
VBB Verordnung über das bäuerliche Bodenrecht
VBVV Verordnung über die Vermögensverwaltung im Rahmen einer Beistandschaft oder Vormundschaft
VDSG Verordnung zum Bundesgesetz über den Datenschutz
VG Bundesgesetz über die Verantwortlichkeit des Bundes sowie seiner Behördemitglieder und Beamten
VGG Bundesgesetz über das Bundesverwaltungsgericht
VKA Verordnung über die Katastrophenhilfe im Ausland
VKV-FINMA Verordnung der Eidgenössischen Finanzmarktaufsicht über den Konkurs von Versicherungsunternehmen
VPAV Verordnung betreffend die Pfändung, Arrestierung und Verwertung von Versicherungsansprüchen nach dem Bundesgesetz vom 2. April 1908 über den Versicherungsvertrag
VStG Bundesgesetz über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStV Verordnung über die Verrechnungssteuer
VStrR Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsstrafrecht
VVAG Verordnung über die Pfändung und Verwertung von Anteilen an Gemeinschaftsvermögen
VVG Bundesgesetz über den Versicherungsvertrag
VZG Verordnung des Bundesgerichts über die Zwangsverwertung von Grundstücken
VegüV Verordnung gegen übermässige Vergütungen bei börsenkotierten Aktiengesellschaften
VeÜ-ZSSV Verordnung über die elektronische Übermittlung im Rahmen von Zivil- und Strafprozessen sowie von Schuldbetreibungs- und Konkursverfahren
VwVG Bundesgesetz über das Verwaltungsverfahren
VüKU Verordnung über die Kontrolle von Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen
VüS Verordnung über das Strafregister
W:
WG Bundesgesetz über Waffen, Waffenzubehör und Munition
Z:
ZG Zollgesetz
ZGB Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch
ZPO Schweizerische Zivilprozessordnung
ZStV Zivilstandsverordnung
ZTG Zolltarifgesetz
Ü:
ÜbZ Übereinkunft betreffend Zivilprozessrecht
ÜüAVaS Übereinkommen über die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung ausländischer Schiedssprüche
ÜüRK Übereinkommen über die Rechte des Kindes
ÜüSKZGIA Übereinkommen über den Schutz von Kindern und die Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Internationalen Adoption
ÜüiZR Übereinkommen über den internationalen Zugang zur Rechtspflege
ÜüzAiK Übereinkommen über die zivilrechtlichen Aspekte internationaler Kindesentführung
C:
CC Code civil suisse
CEDH Convention de sauvegarde des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales
CL Convention concernant la compétence judiciaire, la reconnaissance et l'exécution des décisions en matière civile et commerciale
CLaH 2000 Convention sur la protection internationale des adultes
CLaH 96 Convention
CO Loi fédérale complétant le Code civil suisse
CP Code pénal suisse
CPC Code de procédure civile
CPM Code pénal militaire
CPP Code de procédure pénale suisse
Caclid Convention sur les aspects civils de l’enlèvement international d’enfants
Cpecmdi Convention sur la protection des enfants et la coopération en matière d’adoption internationale
Cprlsaé Convention pour la reconnaissance et l’exécution des sentences arbitrales étrangères
Crdl Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
Crpc Convention relative à la procédure civile
Cst. Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse
Ctflij Convention tendant à faciliter l’accès international à la justice
D:
DPA Loi fédérale sur le droit pénal administratif
DPMin Loi fédérale régissant la condition pénale des mineurs
L:
LAA Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-accidents
LACI Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-chômage obligatoire et l’indemnité en cas d’insolvabilité
LAGH Loi fédérale sur l'analyse génétique humaine
LAMal Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-maladie
LAP Loi fédérale sur l'approvisionnement économique du pays
LAPG Loi fédérale sur les allocations pour perte de gain en cas de service et de maternité
LAVI Loi fédérale sur l'aide aux victimes d'infractions
LAVS Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-vieillesse et survivants
LArm Loi fédérale sur les armes, les accessoires d’armes et les munitions
LAsi Loi sur l’asile
LB Loi fédérale sur les banques et les caisses d’épargne
LBVM Loi fédérale sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
LCA Loi fédérale sur le contrat d'assurance
LCD Loi fédérale contre la concurrence déloyale
LCF Loi fédérale sur le Contrôle fédéral des finances
LCR Loi fédérale sur la circulation routière
LCart Loi fédérale sur les cartels et autres restrictions à la concurrence
LCdF Loi fédérale sur les chemins de fer
LD Loi sur les douanes
LDA Loi fédérale sur le droit d’auteur et les droits voisins
LDFR Loi fédérale sur le droit foncier rural
LDIP Loi fédérale sur le droit international privé
LDP Loi fédérale sur les droits politiques
LEH Loi fédérale sur les privilèges, les immunités et les facilités, ainsi que sur les aides financières accordés par la Suisse en tant qu'Etat hôte
LEI Loi fédérale sur les étrangers et l’intégration
LEg Loi fédérale sur l’égalité entre femmes et hommes
LF-CLaH Loi fédérale relative à la Convention de La Haye sur l'adoption et aux mesures de protection de l'enfant en cas d'adoption internationale
LF-EEA Loi fédérale sur l'enlèvement international d'enfants et les Conventions de La Haye sur la protection des enfants et des adultes
LFAIE Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
LFC Loi sur les finances de la Confédération
LFINMA Loi sur l’Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers
LFLP Loi fédérale sur le libre passage dans la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LFPr Loi fédérale sur la formation professionnelle
LFus Loi fédérale sur la fusion, la scission, la transformation et le transfert de patrimoine
LHID Loi fédérale sur l’harmonisation des impôts directs des cantons et des communes
LIA Loi fédérale sur l’impôt anticipé (LIA)
LIFD Loi fédérale sur l’impôt fédéral direct
LIMF Loi fédérale sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés*
LLCA Loi fédérale sur la libre circulation des avocats
LLG Loi sur l'émission de lettres de gage
LMP Loi fédérale sur les marchés publics
LN Loi fédérale sur l'acquisition et la perte de la nationalité suisse
LOAP Loi fédérale sur l'organisation des autorités pénales de la Confédération
LP Loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
LPCC Loi fédérale sur les placements collectifs de capitaux*
LPD Loi fédérale sur la protection des données
LPM Loi fédérale sur la protection des marques et des indications de provenance
LPMA Loi fédérale sur la procréation médicalement assistée*
LPP Loi fédérale sur la prévoyance professionnelle vieillesse, survivants et invalidité
LPPCi Loi fédérale sur la protection de la population et sur la protection civile
LParl Loisur l’Assemblée fédérale
LPart Loi fédérale sur le partenariat enregistré entre personnes du même sexe
LPers Loi sur le personnel de la Confédération
LRCF Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité de la Confédération, des membres de ses autorités et de ses fonctionnaires
LRFP Loi fédérale sur la responsabilité du fait des produits
LSA Loi fédérale sur la surveillance des entreprises d’assurance
LSPr Loi fédérale concernant la surveillance des prix
LSR Loi fédérale sur l’agrément et la surveillance des réviseurs
LStup Loi fédérale sur les stupéfiants et les substances psychotropes
LSu Loi fédérale sur les aides financières et les indemnités
LT Loi fédérale sur les droits de timbre
LTAF Loi sur le Tribunal administratif fédéral
LTF Loi sur le Tribunal fédéral
LTFB Loi<em></em>sur le Tribunal fédéral des brevets
LTI Loi fédérale sur les titres intermédiés
LTVA Loi fédérale régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
LTaD Loi sur le tarif des douanes
LTr Loi fédérale sur le travail dans l'industrie, l'artisanat et le commerce
O:
OAAE Ordonnance sur l'acte authentique électronique
OACata Ordonnance sur l'aide en cas de catastrophe à l'étranger
OAIE Ordonnance sur l'acquisition d'immeubles par des personnes à l'étranger
OAOF Ordonnance sur l'administration des offices de faillite
OAdo Ordonnance sur l'adoption
OB Ordonnance sur les banques et les caisses d’épargne
OBVM Ordonnance sur les bourses et le commerce des valeurs mobilières
OCEl-PCPP Ordonnance sur la communication électronique dans le cadre de procédures civiles et pénales et de procédures en matière de poursuite pour dettes et de faillite
ODAu Ordonnance sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins
ODFR Ordonnance sur le droit foncier rural
OEC Ordonnance sur l’état civil
OELP Ordonnance sur les émoluments perçus en application de la loi fédérale sur la poursuite pour dettes et la faillite
OFA-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite des entreprises d'assurance
OFPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la faillite de placements collectifs de capitaux
OGPCT Ordonnance sur la gestion du patrimoine dans le cadre d'une curatelle ou d'une tutelle
OHS-LP Ordonnance relative à la haute surveillance en matière de poursuite et de faillite
OIA Ordonnance sur l’impôt anticipé
OIB-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur l'insolvabilité des banques et des négociants en valeurs mobilières
OIMF Ordonnance sur les infrastructures des marchés financiers et le comportement sur le marché en matière de négociation de valeurs mobilières et de dérivés
OIMF-FINMA Ordonnance
OIP Ordonnance sur l'indication des prix
OLAA Ordonnance sur l'assurance-accidents
OLPD Ordonnance relative à la loi fédérale sur la protection des données
OLT 1 Ordonnance 1 relative à la loi sur le travail
ONCR Ordonnance sur les normes comptables reconnues
OPC Ordonnance concernant la saisie et la réalisation de parts de communautés
OPC-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPCC Ordonnance sur les placements collectifs de capitaux
OPE Ordonnance sur le placement d'enfants
ORAb Ordonnance contre les rémunérations abusives dans les sociétés anonymes cotées en bourse
ORC Ordonnance sur le registre du commerce
ORF Ordonnance sur le registre foncier
ORFI Ordonnance du Tribunal fédéral sur la réalisation forcée des immeubles
OS Ordonnance sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OS LCart Ordonnance sur les sanctions en cas de restrictions illicites à la concurrence
OS-FINMA Ordonnance de l'Autorité fédérale de surveillance des marchés financiers sur la surveillance des entreprises d'assurance privées
OSAss Ordonnance concernant la saisie, le séquestre et la réalisation des droits découlant d'assurances d'après la loi fédérale du 2 avril 1908 sur le contrat d'assurance
OT Ordonnance sur les droits de timbre
OTVA Ordonnance régissant la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée
Occd Ordonnance sur le contrôle des concentrations d'entreprises
Ocj Ordonnance sur le casier judiciaire
Olico Ordonnance concernant la tenue et la conservation des livres de comptes
P:
PA Loi fédérale sur la procédure administrative
PPMin Loi fédérale sur la procédure pénale applicable aux mineurs
R:
RAPG Règlement sur les allocations pour perte de gain
RAVS Règlement sur l’assurance-vieillesse et survivants
C:
C Convenzione
CC Codice civile svizzero
CEDU Convenzione per la salvaguardia dei diritti dell'uomo e delle libertà fondamentali
CLug Convenzione concernente la competenza giurisdizionale, il riconoscimento e l'esecuzione delle decisioni in materia civile e commerciale
CO Legge federale di complemento del Codice civile svizzero
CP Codice penale svizzero
CPC Codice di diritto processuale civile svizzero
CPM Codice penale militare
CPP Codice di diritto processuale penale svizzero
Ccrldsae Convenzione concernente il riconoscimento e l’esecuzione delle sentenze arbitrali estere
Cdf Convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo
Cost. Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera
Crapc Convenzione relativa alla procedura civile
Csacrim Convenzione sugli aspetti civili del rapimento internazionale di minori
Cspida Convenzione sulla protezione internazionale degli adulti
Cspmscmai Convenzione sulla protezione dei minori e sulla cooperazione in materia di adozione internazionale
Cvfliag Convenzione volta a facilitare l’accesso internazionale alla giustizia
D:
DPA Legge federale sul diritto penale amministrativo
DPMin Legge federale sul diritto penale minorile
L:
LADI Legge federale sull’assicurazione obbligatoria contro la disoccupazione e l’indennità per insolvenza
LAFE Legge federale sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
LAID Legge federale sull’armonizzazione delle imposte dirette dei Cantoni e dei Comuni
LAINF Legge federale sull’assicurazione contro gli infortuni
LAMal Legge federale sull’assicurazione malattie
LAP Legge federale sull'approvvigionamento economico del Paese
LAPub Legge federale sugli acquisti pubblici
LAV Legge federale concernente l'aiuto alle vittime di reati
LAVS Legge federale su l’assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
LArm Legge federale sulle armi, gli accessori di armi e le munizioni
LAsi Legge sull’asilo
LBCR Legge federale sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
LBVM Legge federale sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
LCA Legge federale sul contratto d'assicurazione
LCF Legge federale sul controllo federale delle finanze
LCSl Legge federale contro la concorrenza sleale
LCStr Legge federale sulla circolazione stradale
LCart Legge federale sui cartelli e altre limitazioni della concorrenza
LCit Legge federale su l'acquisto e la perdita della cittadinanza svizzera
LD Legge sulle dogane
LDA Legge federale sul diritto d’autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
LDFR Legge federale sul diritto fondiario rurale
LDIP Legge federale sul diritto internazionale privato
LDP Legge federale sui diritti politici
LEF Legge federale sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
LEGU Legge federale sugli esami genetici sull'essere umano
LF-CAA Legge federale relativa alla Convenzione dell'Aia sull'adozione e a provvedimenti per la protezione del minore nelle adozioni internazionali
LF-RMA Legge federale sul rapimento internazionale dei minori e sulle Convenzioni dell'Aia sulla protezione dei minori e degli adulti
LFC Legge federale sulle finanze della Confederazione
LFINMA Legge federale concernente l’Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari
LFLP Legge federale sul libero passaggio nella previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l'invalidità
LFPr Legge federale sulla formazione professionale
LFus Legge federale sulla fusione, la scissione, la trasformazione e il trasferimento di patrimonio
LICol Legge federale sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
LIFD Legge federale sull’imposta federale diretta
LIP Legge federale sull’imposta preventiva
LIPG Legge federale sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno per chi presta servizio e in caso di maternità
LIVA Legge federale concernente l’imposta sul valore aggiunto
LInFi Legge federale sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
LL Legge federale sul lavoro nell'industria, nell'artigianato e nel commercio
LLCA Legge federale sulla libera circolazione degli avvocati
LOAP Legge federale sull'organizzazione delle autorità penali della Confederazione
LOF Legge sulle obbligazioni fondiarie
LPAM Legge federale concernente la procreazione con assistenza medica
LPD Legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
LPM Legge federale sulla protezione dei marchi e delle indicazioni di provenienza
LPP Legge federale sulla previdenza professionale per la vecchiaia, i superstiti e l’invalidità
LPPC Legge federale sulla protezione della popolazione e sulla protezione civile
LPar Legge federale sulla parità dei sessi
LParl Legge federale sull’Assemblea federale
LPers Legge sul personale federale
LRDP Legge federale sulla responsabilità per danno da prodotti
LResp Legge federale su la responsabilità della Confederazione, dei membri delle autorità federali e dei funzionari federali
LSA Legge federale sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione
LSO Legge federale sui privilegi, le immunità e le facilitazioni, nonché sugli aiuti finanziari accordati dalla Svizzera quale Stato ospite
LSPr Legge federale sulla sorveglianza dei prezzi
LSR Legge federalesull’abilitazione e la sorveglianza dei revisori
LStrI Legge federale sugli stranieri e la loro integrazione
LStup Legge federale sugli stupefacenti e sulle sostanze psicotrope
LSu Legge federale sugli aiuti finanziari e le indennità
LTAF Legge sul Tribunale amministrativo federale
LTB Legge federale sulle tasse di bollo
LTCo Legge federale sui titoli contabili
LTD Legge sulla tariffa delle dogane
LTF Legge sul Tribunale federale
LTFB Legge sul Tribunale federale dei brevetti
LUD Legge federale sull'unione domestica registrata di coppie omosessuali
Lferr Legge federale sulle ferrovie
O:
OABCT Ordinanza sull'amministrazione di beni nell'ambito di una curatela o di una tutela
OACata Ordinanza sull'aiuto in caso di catastrofe all'estero
OAFE Ordinanza sull'acquisto di fondi da parte di persone all'estero
OAINF Ordinanza sull'assicurazione contro gli infortuni
OAMin Ordinanza sull'accoglimento di minori a scopo di affiliazione
OAPuE Ordinanza sugli atti pubblici in forma elettronica
OAV-LEF Ordinanza concernente l'alta vigilanza sulla esecuzione e sul fallimento
OAVS Ordinanza sull’assicurazione per la vecchiaia e per i superstiti
OAdoz Ordinanza sull'adozione
OBCR Ordinanza sulle banche e le casse di risparmio
OBVM Ordinanza sulle borse e il commercio di valori mobiliari
OCE-PCPE Ordinanza sulla comunicazione per via elettronica nell’ambito di procedimenti civili e penali nonché di procedure d’esecuzione e fallimento
ODAu Ordinanza sul diritto d'autore e sui diritti di protezione affini
ODFR Ordinanza sul diritto fondiario rurale
ODiC Ordinanza concernente il pignoramento e la realizzazione di diritti in comunione
OFA-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento delle imprese di assicurazione
OFICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sul fallimento degli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIB-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sull'insolvenza di banche e commercianti di valori mobiliari
OICol Ordinanza sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OICol-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sugli investimenti collettivi di capitale
OIP Ordinanza sull'indicazione dei prezzi
OIPG Ordinanza sulle indennità di perdita di guadagno
OIPrev Ordinanza sull’imposta preventiva
OIVA Ordinanza concernente l'imposta sul valore aggiunto
OInFi Ordinanza sulle infrastrutture del mercato finanziario e il comportamento sul mercato nel commercio di valori mobiliari e derivati
OInFi-FINMA Ordinanza
OLL 1 Ordinanza 1 concernente la legge sul lavoro
OLPD Ordinanza relativa alla legge federale sulla protezione dei dati
ONCR Ordinanza sulle norme contabili riconosciute
ORC Ordinanza sul registro di commercio
ORF Ordinanza sul registro fondiario
OReSA Ordinanza contro le retribuzioni abusive nelle società anonime quotate in borsa
OS Ordinanza sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private
OS LCart Ordinanza sulle sanzioni in caso di limitazioni illecite della concorrenza
OS-FINMA Ordinanza dell'Autorità federale di vigilanza sui mercati finanziari sulla sorveglianza delle imprese di assicurazione private